GRE Eponyms

An eponym is any word that is derived from a person’s name.

In the past, I’ve mentioned how English is the most promiscuous of languages, absorbing languages as unrelated as Sanskrit and Finnish into its bulging lexicon. By extension, I’ve also mentioned how relying on Latin/Greek roots can oftentimes cripple your word detective skills. Thwarting a root-based approach even more is the fact that English not only takes from any language it stumbles across, but that it blithely appropriates a person’s name, trimming a few letters here and there (adding the Latin –ian, or -esque for true mongrel effect), and then begetting a Franken-word that would confound a seasoned etymologist.

Adapting a name in such a fashion results in an eponym. What makes eponyms fascinating—and even more random—is that just about anyone can bequeath the world his or her name: a fictional anti-hero who thought windmills were dragons; a jingoistic veteran of Napoleon’s army; an author with a penchant for absurdity, and an aversion to bureaucracy.

Of course, for GRE purposes we do not need to know that a jeroboam is a massive wine bottle named for an ancient Israeli king (who apparently was quite the wino). So I have culled from a list of eponyms those that may actually show up test day.



Franz Mesmer, an Austrian physician prominent the turn of the 19th century, was renowned for hypnotizing people. His method included kneeling near a patient, touching his/her knees and looking into the person’s eyes (I’m curious if he ever proposed to one of his clients).

Today, we have the word mesmerize, which doesn’t necessarily mean to hypnotize (though it could), but is used figuratively and means to hold spellbound.

The plot and the characters were so well developed that many viewers were mesmerized, unable to move their eyes from the screen for even a single second.



No, this word does not pertain to a large salamander name Gerry – though I suppose it could. Gerrymander is actually far more interesting than that.

Elbridge Gerry was the vice president of James Madison, the 4th president of the United States. Elbridge had an interesting idea. To get elected a president had to win a certain number of districts. So Elbridge came up with the following plan: if he partitioned a city in a certain way he could ensure that the president would win the majority of the votes from that district.

The end result was a city that was split up into the oddest arrangement of districts. And can you guess what a map of the city, gerrymandered, looked like? Yep, a salamander.

Today the use of gerrymander hasn’t changed too much, and refers to the manipulation of boundaries to favor a certain group.



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If you remember reading Homer’s Iliad, you may remember Hector, a muscular, daunting force. (Some of you may more vividly recall Eric Bana from the movie Troy). As people were intimidated around Hector, it makes sense that the word hector means to bully or intimidate.

The boss’s hectoring manner put off many employees, some of whom quit as soon as they found a new job.



Like Hector, Pollyannaish comes from fiction. However, in this case we are dealing with a relatively recent work, that of Eleanor Porter, who came up with a character named Pollyanna. Pollyanna was extremely optimistic, and so it should be no surprise that Pollyannaish means extremely optimistic.

Even in the midst of a lousy sales quarter, Debbie remained Pollyannaish, never losing her shrill voice and wide smile, even when people hung up on her.



Many have heard this word, and some may even have a visceral reaction to the word. However, this word is actually misused. A chauvinist is not a male who chugs beers, watches too much football, and demeans women. That would be a male chauvinist. So what is a chauvinist, unadorned by any adjective?

Well, Nicolas Chauvin, a one-time recruit in Napoleon’s army, used to go about town, thumping his chest about how great France was. In its modern day incantation, chauvinism means anyone who thinks that their group is better than anybody else’s group. You can have male chauvinists, political party chauvinists, and even female chauvinists.



King Pyrrhus had the unfortunate luck of going up against the Romans. Some would say that he was actually lucky in that he actually defeated the Romans in the Battle of Asculum. Pyrrhic was perhaps more ambivalent, quipping, “One more such victory will undo me.”

So any win that comes at so great a cost that it is not even worth it is a pyrrhic victory.



By day, Franz Kafka filed papers at an insurance office; by night, he churned out dark novels, which suggested that the quotidian world of the office was actually far more sinister. Mainly, his novels were known for the absurd predicaments of their main characters (who often went by nothing more than a single initial).

Today, we have the word Kafkaesque, that refers to the absurdity we have to deal with living in a world of faceless bureaucracies. So next time you are put on hold for three hours and then volleyed back in forth between a dozen monotone-voice employees, think to yourself, hey this is Kafkaesque.



Don Quixote is perhaps one of the most well known characters in all of literature. I suppose there is something heartbreaking yet comical at a man past his prime who believes he is on some great mission to save the world. In fact, Don Quixote was so far off his rocker that he thought windmills were dragons.

As a word that means somebody who mistakes windmills for dragons would have a severely limited application, quixotic has taken the broader meaning of someone who is wildly idealistic. It is one thing to want to help end world hunger; it is another to think you can do so on your own. The latter would be deemed quixotic.



Mary Madgalene was the most important female disciple of Jesus. After Jesus had been crucified, she wept at his tomb.

From this outward outpouring of emotion, we today have the word maudlin. Whereas Mary’s weeping was noble, maudlin has taken on a negative tinge. A person who is maudlin cries in public for no good reason, and is oftentimes times used to describe one who’s tried to finish a jeroboam alone, and now must share with the stranger sitting next to them all of his deepest feelings.


Interestingly, there is another eponym for literature that has a very similar meaning: Panglossian. Derived from Dr. Pangloss from Voltaire’s Candide, Panglossian carries a negative connotation, implying blind optimism.

Despite the fact that his country had been marred by a protracted civil war, Victor remained ever Panglossian, claiming that his homeland was living through a Golden Age.



Nope, I have not spelled protein incorrectly (don’t worry—carbohydrates will not show up next on the list!). Protean is an eponym derived from the Greek god Proteus, he who could change into shape or forms at will. To be protean, however, does not mean you wow party guests by shifting into various kinds of lawn furniture. The consummate adaptability implied by the word is used to describe a person’s ability. So an actor, musician, or writer who is very versatile is protean.

Peter Sellers was truly a protean actor—in Doctor Strangelove he played three very different roles: a jingoist general, a sedate President and a deranged scientist.



This is definitely one of my favorite eponyms. While the provenance is nowhere nearly as interesting as those of other eponyms, the word perfectly describes a lapse that any of us is capable of making, especially those studying for the GRE.

Ms. Malaprop was a character in a play called The Rivals by the largely forgotten Richard Brinsley Sheridan. She was known for mixing up similar sounding words, usually to comic effect.Indeed, she would utter the words with such complete aplomb that those listening were unsure if she’d even mixed up words in the first place. Her favorite Spanish dance was the flamingo (note: the dance in question is the flamenco; a flamingo is a salmon-colored bird known both for its elegance and tackiness).

GRE malapropisms aren’t quite so silly as Ms. Malaprop mixing up a bird and a Spanish dance, but I’ll do my best. See if you can spot the GRE malapropisms below.

The graffiti artist was indicated for defecating the church with gang signs.

Picasso was a protein artist, able to mix elements of African art with the oven guard.



We’ve all heard of the Nazis. Some of you may have even heard of the Vichy government, which was a puppet regime set up by the Nazis inFrance during WWII. Few of us, however, know that Germany also tried to turn Norway into a puppet regime. In order for Germany to take over Norway, it needed an inside man, a Norwegian who would sell his country out for the Nazis.

This man was Viktor Quisling. For arrant perfidy, he has been awarded the eponym quisling, which means traitor.



Okay, I cheated a little on this one. Byzant was not a medieval philosopher (nor an industrious ant). The word ‘byzantine’ is not derived from a person’s name, but from Byzantium, an ancient city that was part of the Byzantine Empire (the word can also refer to the empire itself). Specifically, Byzantium was known for the intricate patterns adorning its architecture. Bulbous domed turrets were emblazoned with ornate latticing (think of the towers on a Russia church).

The modern usage of byzantine refers not to architecture per se, but to anything that is extremely intricate and complex. It actually carries a negative connotation.

Getting a driver’s license is not simply a matter of taking a test; the regulations and procedures are so byzantine that many have find themselves at the mercy of the DMV. 



Like many late 18th Century scientists, Luigi Galvani was fascinated with electricity (you may recall a certain Ben Franklin who had a similar penchant). Galvani’s breakthrough came a little more serendipitously than playing with metal in lightning storms—he noticed that an electric current passing through a dead frog’s legs made those legs twitch. This observation sparked—pardon the pun—a series of connections: could it be that electric shock could cause muscles to twitch?

Today, galvanize can mean to shock but in a different sense than through raw electricity. To galvanize is to shock or urge somebody/something into action.

The colonel’s speech galvanized the troops, who had all but given up. 


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25 Responses to GRE Eponyms

  1. Ujjwal Prazapati June 1, 2019 at 12:42 am #

    Hi Chris
    I am not able to see what’s the malapropism in the sentence you have given i.e.

    The graffiti artist was indicated for defecating the church with gang signs.

    Can you please tell me what’s wrong here?

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert June 5, 2019 at 1:09 pm #

      Hi there, Ujjwal! The malapropism is the word “defecating.” “Defecate” refers to a bodily function. “Deface” refers to causing damage to something, such as when you spray paint a building. These words are similar, and the author used the wrong one 🙂

  2. T March 30, 2019 at 10:47 am #

    Hi may I know what’s the difference between Panglossian and Quixotic?

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert April 3, 2019 at 7:41 pm #

      Hi there! 🙂

      The difference between panglossian and quixotic is that panglossian is naively or unreasonably optimistic while quixotic is possessing or acting with the desire to do noble and romantic deeds, without thought of realism and practicality; exceedingly idealistic.

      This website might help you too. 🙂

  3. Prasad N R March 28, 2018 at 10:48 pm #

    The countenance of Chris in his videos is awesome. He is not facetious; But, at the same time, galvanises the message with humor. I would be a quisling and gift a perfidy for myself if I do not make GRE words tacky for my head. I do not know the provenance of this protean guy Chris who seems to have bailiwick of words and humor. My panglossian over polyannaish goal of 335 is too far off (330 is needed) and maudlin tears over it is useless. I cannot be a quotidian chauvinist of my GRE verbal skills until I score 160+ in verbal. I need to gerrymander these GRE words before I am self-hectored by my depression over university rejections. Of-course, kafkaesque GRE words do require pyrrhic efforts.

  4. iqra June 30, 2017 at 10:22 am #

    Hi, Chris!I have been going through many of your blog posts. I was just wondering that the posts written for vocabulary are still relevant today?I mean these posts were written back in 2012, and now 5 years later are still these words trending for GRE?

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert July 3, 2017 at 1:54 am #

      Hi Iqra! We do think that the vocabulary we have talked about since the GRE changed in 2011 is still very relevant. 🙂

  5. Sam September 3, 2016 at 11:48 pm #

    Hi Chris,

    Brilliant post!

    It helps to use stories to remember eponymous words – especially since it’s hard to remember.

    I was thinking of another word – Orwellian?

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert September 5, 2016 at 11:11 am #

      Hi Sam! YES! That’s a good one. 🙂

  6. Rohit April 7, 2012 at 9:11 am #

    great work Chris, we not only learn the eponyms here but also a whole bunch of words from the language that you use!

    • Chris Lele
      Chris April 9, 2012 at 3:22 pm #

      Great, I’m happy you enjoyed.

      Per Nimrod’s comment as well (every other word is a gre word), perhaps a great resource for vocabulary-in-context are my posts :).

      I’ll be sure to keep threading in high-frequency vocab.

  7. Nimrod April 7, 2012 at 3:29 am #

    Hi Chris,

    Is “culled” the most fitting word for “picked out of a larger list”? I ran into it in the context of picking out the inferior animals of a herd, in order to improve the general population’s well being and evolution. While it also means “pick out of a larger group”, aren’t there any better synomyms?


    • Nimrod April 7, 2012 at 3:54 am #

      Just finished reading the post. Bravo! It was fascinating and useful, and I admire the fact that every other word in it is also a GRE word. Thank you!

      • Chris Lele
        Chris April 9, 2012 at 3:20 pm #

        Hi Nimrod!

        Glad you liked the post :).

        Look for similar ones in the coming weeks!

    • Chris Lele
      Chris April 9, 2012 at 3:19 pm #

      Hmmm…interesting point. ‘Culled’ is an interesting word because it applies to removing the inferior and keeping the superior.

      In the sense of picking from a large source, I think it still works here. Eponyms abound in the English lexicon, ranging from choice GRE morsels to oddballs that would never end up on the test. Anyhow, I imagined myself picking eponyms that were apt from a GRE-standpoint, and also had a good back story.

      I could have used ‘obtain’ – though that sounds dull. ‘Gleaned’ would also have worked. Had the eponyms simply came from a list, then ‘selected’ would have been best.

      Thanks though for the sharp pair of eyes :).

  8. Praveen April 6, 2012 at 10:42 am #

    Hi Chris,

    That was an awesome read 🙂 wish each word had a story behind it! would make learning far more easier.

    Machiavellian is another such word I could recollect from my scant eponym knowledge 😛

    • Chris Lele
      Chris April 9, 2012 at 3:11 pm #

      Hi Praveen,

      Thanks for the kudos!

      ‘Machiavellian’ is another great eponym. I’ll have to make it part of my next eponym post :).

  9. priya April 5, 2012 at 9:51 pm #

    love reading all of your blogs.

    • Chris Lele
      Chris April 9, 2012 at 3:10 pm #

      Thanks priya!

      Glad you enjoyed :).

  10. Nitish April 5, 2012 at 3:05 am #

    Brilliant article. nice way to apprehend words. Thanks..

    • Chris Lele
      Chris April 5, 2012 at 2:42 pm #

      Happy you enjoyed it!

  11. vaisnavi April 5, 2012 at 1:48 am #

    we can find plenty of other eponyms like Armageddon ( derived from Hebrew Har megiddon or hill of megiddo), Narcissism (A handsome youth in greek mythology, who fell in love with his self image), Platonic (from Greek scholar Plato) Martinet (from the renowned french drill master Jean Martinet) etc.

    • Chris Lele
      Chris April 5, 2012 at 2:41 pm #

      Great finds! In the near future, I will come up with an eponym post based just on mythical/fictional characters. I think a literary/philosophy eponym post is also screaming to be written :).

  12. vaisnavi April 5, 2012 at 1:31 am #

    Wow, simply stupendous!

    • Chris Lele
      Chris April 5, 2012 at 2:39 pm #

      Great, happy you enjoyed the post!

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