President Theodore Roosevelt was a champion of Progressivism. As you review his life and achievements for the exam, here are some Theodore Roosevelt APUSH facts that you should know.
Who Is Theodore Roosevelt?
Theodore Roosevelt is best known as the 26th President of the United States. He was a Rough Rider in the Spanish-American War. And, he graduated from Harvard at the top of his class. Then, he served as the Governor of New York.
After that, William McKinley selected him as his Vice President. He became president after the assassination of William McKinley.
Some of the things that Theodore Roosevelt is known for during his time as president include:
- Trustbusting (trusts controlled the majority of industries at the time)
- Safe food regulations
- Nobel Peace Prize recipient for helping to negotiate peace in the Russo-Japanese War (He was the first president to receive it.)
- “The Square Deal”
- Building of the Panama Canal
- Hepburn Act
- Great White Fleet
- “Gentlemen’s Agreement” (While working with the Japanese government, President Roosevelt worked to regulate the number of workers coming into the United States. By restricting the number of Japanese people coming to America, President Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the men who were already here to join them in the U.S.)
- “Big Stick Policy”
- Lived October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919
- Elected as the Governor of NY: 1898
- Elected as VP: 1900
- Presidency: September 4, 1901-1909
- Russo-Japanese War: 1905
Why Is He Important?
President Roosevelt played a huge role in the Progressive Era during the beginning of the 20th century. Also, he worked to give greater authority to the government to regulate life for the American people, including busting trusts and regulating food.
President Roosevelt was a conservationist. During his presidency, he set apart around 230 million acres of land for national parks. This includes the following national parks and national monuments:
- Crater Lake
- Wind Cave
- Mesa Verde
- Devil’s Tower
- El Morro
- Chaco Canyon
- Petrified Forest
- Montezuma Castle
- Cinder Cone
- John Muir- As a preservationist, he was the founder of the Sierra Club. Most noteworthy, he went on a camping trip with Theodor Roosevelt and showed him around the land.
- Gifford Pinchot- He served as the chief forester during Theodor Roosevelt’s presidency. Especially relevant, he preserved over 170 million acres. This included forests and water power sites that we use today.
- Woodrow Wilson- Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States. In the past, there were questions that compared him and Theodore Roosevelt on the APUSH exam, especially in terms of Progressivism.
- Forest Reserve Act of 1881- To set aside land for national parks, this act was passed to give President Roosevelt authorization to do this.
- National Reclamation Act- Passed in 1902, this legislation increased federal funds for the constructing of canals, dams, and reservoirs, which now provide cheaper electrical power.
- Roosevelt Corollary- This legislation, which was passed in 1904, was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine. It said that the U.S. had the right to protect their economic interests in South and Central America. And, it said that they could do this through military force.
- Meat Inspection Act- After Upton Sinclair’s book, The Jungle, was released, Theodore Roosevelt pushed to regulate the meat purchased to ensure it was safe to eat. This legislation passed in 1906.
- Pure Food and Drug Act- Because of the need to restrict the sale of dangerous or ineffective medications to the public, President Roosevelt passed this legislation in 1906.
- Hepburn Regulation Act- In 1906, this legislation gave the government regulatory authority. This was done to allow the ICC to oversee the creation of the railroad.
APUSH Practice Question 1
1.Why did Theodore Roosevelt get involved with peace talks during the Russo-Japanese War?
a. Because he wanted the U.S. military to safely travel throughout the Pacific Ocean again, he negotiated a ceasefire.
b. Since he was an ally of both these empires, he didn’t want these nations growing weaker during a war.
c. As a result of talks with the leader of Japan, President Roosevelt decided to assist with peace talks.
d. Due to his desire to control Japan, President Roosevelt worked with Russia to create a treaty.
Answer: C. Since Japan felt like Russia would be victorious over them, the Japanese leaders reached out to President Roosevelt. Therefore, they asked him to help mediate peace talks between these countries to end the war.
APUSH Practice Question 2
2.Under the Square Deal the federal government did all the following EXECPT:
a. Signed a treaty with Panama to develop the canal at the isthmus of Panama
b. Established several national parks and federal irrigation projects
c. Investigated child labor incidents and created regulations in DC and other areas
d. Created legislation to prevent the spreading of contaminated meat
Answer: A. The Square Deal included three C’s: the conservation of natural resources, the creation of controls and regulation for corporations, and consumer protection programs. Under the Square Deal, President Roosevelt and Congress passed various legislation for these goals. And, although President Roosevelt aided the creation of the Panama Canal, it wasn’t a part of the Square Deal.
APUSH Practice Question 3
3.During Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency, he did all of the following EXCEPT:
a. Restricted the sale of dangerous medications.
b. Preserved millions of acres of land as national parks.
c. Broke up the railroad trust of J. Pierpont Morgan
d. Passed the Dingley Tariff Act to raise federal taxes
Answer: D. President Roosevelt accomplished everything except for passing the Dingley Tariff Act. Actually, President McKinley passed this legislation before his assassination.
How did you do with the practice questions? As you continue to prepare for the exam, ask yourself, “What themes did you notice for Theodore Roosevelt APUSH topics?” Some may include conservationism or Progressive Movement. What other ideas have you considered? Share them with us in the comments below.