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TOEFL Practice Test: A TOEFL Sample Test from Magoosh

Everyone knows that the best way to prepare yourself for your TOEFL test date is to practice the questions. But as an experienced student, you know that you must also prepare for the format, timing, and pacing of the TOEFL exam. The best way to do this is to take a TOEFL sample test.

It can be hard to find quality materials online, especially if you want a free sample test. But, don’t worry! We are here to help. Magoosh’s TOEFL Experts created a free TOEFL Practice Test just for you. Plus, we put together a list of many other free TOEFL practice resources to help you study for test day.

Table of Contents

Magoosh’s Free TOEFL Practice Test

As you know, the TOEFL is formatted in four sections, each of which tests one language skill—reading, listening, speaking, and writing. In the test below, you’ll find a full version of each section. A full-length TOEFL iBT Test takes about 3 hours.

How to use this Magoosh TOEFL sample test


Before each set of questions, we’ve provided directions for that section—be sure to read them! The best way to use this test is to first answer all of the questions, and then review answers with the answer key and score report that appears at the end.In your score report, you’ll see that there are also links to explanation videos, in case an answer is confusing. We highly recommend watching these videos! Why?

Well, once you have finished reviewing your practice test, you will have a tally of which questions you answered correctly and which questions you answered incorrectly. The only way to improve your TOEFL score is to understand why you are making mistakes and missing questions. That way, you can learn from your mistakes and avoid making the same errors on the real test. Watching explanation videos will help you learn from your mistakes.

Your score report at the end of this test will also come with some personalized recommendations for the TOEFL Reading and TOEFL Writing sections. These recommendations will tell you what your scaled TOEFL score is right now, based on how you did on the test. The recommendations also give youa dvice for next steps on improving your score. Now, because TOEFL Speaking and TOEFL Writing are scored by human scorers, our test can’t give you a score report for those sections. But your score report will include a link to quite a few resources for scoring your Speaking and Writing, either through self-scoring or through feedback from others. You can also click here for TOEFL Speaking score resources, and click here for TOEFL Writing score resources.

All of these practice questions come from the Magoosh TOEFL product. If you like what you see in the practice test, be sure to sign up for a free trial of Magoosh. 🙂

 
The Magoosh TOEFL Practice Test starts below. This is a full-length test. For the most accurate results, give yourself 54 minutes to complete the TOEFL Reading section and 41 minutes to complete the TOEFL Listening section. For each individual Speaking and Writing task, follow the time limits you’ll see in the instructions.

1.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)

Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the bolded sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Question 1 of 64

2.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)

Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the clinical trials for the chickenpox vaccine?

Question 2 of 64

3.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)

The word notion in the passage is closest in meaning to

Question 3 of 64

4.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)

According to paragraph 3, which of the following is true of Varicella Zoster?

Question 4 of 64

5.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)

The word prevalent in the passage is closest in meaning to

Question 5 of 64

6.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)

The word it in the passage refers to

Question 6 of 64

7.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)

According to paragraph 4, many parents did not choose the chickenpox vaccine because

Question 7 of 64

8.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)

According to paragraph 5, which of the following was true of the rates of chickenpox before the chickenpox vaccine became widely used?

Question 8 of 64

9.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)

Look at the four squares [▪] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Meanwhile, some continue to remain unconvinced, citing a supposed potential of the vaccine to do harm.

Where would the sentence fit best?

Question 9 of 64

10.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)


Directions: Below, select the TWO statements that describe chickenpox. In the next question you will select statments that describe shingles. On the test, these two questions will display as one, and you will click and drag statements into the correct category. (See the screeenshot above.) Between the cheickenpox category and the shingles category, two answer choices will NOT be used. Combined, this question and the next one are worth 4 POINTS.

Question 10 of 64

11.

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

Another reason that the chickenpox vaccine was not immediately accepted and used by parents in the U.S. centered on observations made by scientists that the vaccine simply did not last long enough and did not confer a lifetime of immunity. In other words, scientists considered the benefits of the vaccine to be temporary when given to young children. They also feared that it increased the odds that a person could become infected with chickenpox later as a young adult, when the rash is more painful and prevalent and can last up to three or four weeks. Hence, allowing young children to develop chickenpox rather than take a vaccine against it was believed to be the “lesser of two evils.” This idea changed over time as booster shots of the vaccine elongated immunity and countered the perceived limits on the strength of the vaccine itself.

Today, use of the chickenpox vaccine is common throughout the world. Pediatricians suggest an initial vaccination shot after a child turns one year old, with booster shots recommended after the child turns eight. The vaccine is estimated to be up to 90% effective and has reduced worldwide cases of chickenpox infection to 400,000 cases per year from over 4,000,000 cases before vaccination became widespread. ■ (A) In light of such statistics, most doctors insist that the potential risks of developing shingles outweigh the benefits of avoiding rare complications associated with inoculations. ■ (B) Of course, many parents continue to think of the disease as an innocuous ailment, refusing to take preemptive steps against it. ■ (C) As increasing numbers of children are vaccinated and the virus becomes increasingly rarer, however, even this trend among parents has failed to halt the decline of chickenpox among the most vulnerable populations. ■ (D)


Directions: Below, select the THREE statements that describe shingles. In the previous question, you selected statments that described chickenpox. On the test, these two questions will display as one, and you will click and drag statements into the correct category. (See the screeenshot above.) Between the cheickenpox category and the shingles category, two answer choices will NOT be used. Combined, this question and the next one are worth 4 POINTS.

Question 11 of 64

12.

The Cicada's Song

Cicadas are insects famous for their ability to generate a distinct sound with an auditory power that can rival the decibel level of a rock music concert and exceed the engine roar of a motorcycle. With close to 3,000 species of cicada identified and documented, this family of insect is found worldwide. For the majority of its life, the cicada remains underground, where it is nourished and sustained through sap secreted by the roots of trees. When mature, the insect tunnels to the surface and sheds its skin to reveal its adult form. This life cycle varies among the species, with certain types maturing and ready to reproduce in just one year. One of the most eagerly anticipated and studied species of cicada is Magicicada Septendecim, a periodical brood that attracts plenty of media attention for its emergence every 13 or 17 years across the Midwestern United States in vast, swarming numbers. In these swarms, the cicadas generate their “music,” signaling their presence, and the onset of summer, for anyone and anything to hear for miles and miles around.

Only male cicadas are able to generate the sound their species is known for, utilizing a unique physical trait and noise-making process that differentiates them from crickets, which many people incorrectly assume to be similar to cicadas. While crickets generate their distinctive chirp through stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts, cicadas essentially produce a drumbeat amplified very much in the same way that the sound of an acoustic guitar is created. Males are blessed with a body part known as a tymbal, which is a rigid and pliable exoskeleton-based appendage that can move in a wave-like manner, producing a clicking when it strikes the inside of the abdomen of the cicada. Because the abdomen of the cicada is for the most part hollow, the clicking sound is amplified, giving the cicada’s song its famous power.

The primary purpose of the male cicada’s song is to attract a female with which to breed. Cicadas tend to be very well camouflaged, and can blend into their surrounding tree-based environments easily. The song of the cicada provides the clues through which the female cicada can find the nearest male. However, the cicada also appears to use its song for defensive purposes in a unique way. Whereas most insects and animals aim to scare off potential dangers by increasing the volume of their warning sounds (e.g. the rattlesnake), cicadas, when threatened, actually diminish the noise that they make. The reason for this is that cicadas are hardly ever alone in a given area, and thus it is difficult for a hunter to pick out the song of an individual insect while distracted by its neighbors. Should a predator be detected, nearby cicadas become very quiet to decrease the odds that they will be singled out among the roar of their more distant kin.

Scientists who study the cicada raise interesting observations about the evolutionary development of the cicada song and the cicada’s short breeding period. Cicadas live underground for most of their lives and only rise to the surface for several days or weeks at most to find a mate and then die. The reason for this lies in the sedentary nature of the cicada, which makes the insect an easy target for birds and other predators, which consume the insects in great numbers. However, by emerging in the millions all at once, cicadas increase their chance of survival as a species into the next generation, as predators simply cannot significantly impact the numbers of their prey in such a brief period. Meanwhile, the power of the cicada song has proven to be an effective tool for collective breeding, as each insect must locate a mate quickly while outlasting potential predators.

Cicadas garner the attention, adoration, and sometimes scorn of the general public for the distinctive sound that they create and their occasionally suffocating abundance. ■ (A) In temperate environments all over the world, the ubiquitous buzz of the cicada’s song dominates the backdrop. ■ (B) One must be careful not to come too close to the most powerful of cicadas, whose sound, if heard from just outside the human ear, is known to cause long-term or irreversible physical damage. ■ (C) The cicada’s unique tymbal structure, hollow abdomen, and stamina allow it to generate noise for up to 24-hour cycles, leading to the love/hate relationship people may have with the insect. ■ (D) The cicada plays to its evolutionary strength, with the power and majesty of its song as the key to its survival.

Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the bolded sentence in paragraph 1? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Question 12 of 64

13.

The Cicada's Song

Cicadas are insects famous for their ability to generate a distinct sound with an auditory power that can rival the decibel level of a rock music concert and exceed the engine roar of a motorcycle. With close to 3,000 species of cicada identified and documented, this family of insect is found worldwide. For the majority of its life, the cicada remains underground, where it is nourished and sustained through sap secreted by the roots of trees. When mature, the insect tunnels to the surface and sheds its skin to reveal its adult form. This life cycle varies among the species, with certain types maturing and ready to reproduce in just one year. One of the most eagerly anticipated and studied species of cicada is Magicicada Septendecim, a periodical brood that attracts plenty of media attention for its emergence every 13 or 17 years across the Midwestern United States in vast, swarming numbers. In these swarms, the cicadas generate their “music,” signaling their presence, and the onset of summer, for anyone and anything to hear for miles and miles around.

Only male cicadas are able to generate the sound their species is known for, utilizing a unique physical trait and noise-making process that differentiates them from crickets, which many people incorrectly assume to be similar to cicadas. While crickets generate their distinctive chirp through stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts, cicadas essentially produce a drumbeat amplified very much in the same way that the sound of an acoustic guitar is created. Males are blessed with a body part known as a tymbal, which is a rigid and pliable exoskeleton-based appendage that can move in a wave-like manner, producing a clicking when it strikes the inside of the abdomen of the cicada. Because the abdomen of the cicada is for the most part hollow, the clicking sound is amplified, giving the cicada’s song its famous power.

The primary purpose of the male cicada’s song is to attract a female with which to breed. Cicadas tend to be very well camouflaged, and can blend into their surrounding tree-based environments easily. The song of the cicada provides the clues through which the female cicada can find the nearest male. However, the cicada also appears to use its song for defensive purposes in a unique way. Whereas most insects and animals aim to scare off potential dangers by increasing the volume of their warning sounds (e.g. the rattlesnake), cicadas, when threatened, actually diminish the noise that they make. The reason for this is that cicadas are hardly ever alone in a given area, and thus it is difficult for a hunter to pick out the song of an individual insect while distracted by its neighbors. Should a predator be detected, nearby cicadas become very quiet to decrease the odds that they will be singled out among the roar of their more distant kin.

Scientists who study the cicada raise interesting observations about the evolutionary development of the cicada song and the cicada’s short breeding period. Cicadas live underground for most of their lives and only rise to the surface for several days or weeks at most to find a mate and then die. The reason for this lies in the sedentary nature of the cicada, which makes the insect an easy target for birds and other predators, which consume the insects in great numbers. However, by emerging in the millions all at once, cicadas increase their chance of survival as a species into the next generation, as predators simply cannot significantly impact the numbers of their prey in such a brief period. Meanwhile, the power of the cicada song has proven to be an effective tool for collective breeding, as each insect must locate a mate quickly while outlasting potential predators.

Cicadas garner the attention, adoration, and sometimes scorn of the general public for the distinctive sound that they create and their occasionally suffocating abundance. ■ (A) In temperate environments all over the world, the ubiquitous buzz of the cicada’s song dominates the backdrop. ■ (B) One must be careful not to come too close to the most powerful of cicadas, whose sound, if heard from just outside the human ear, is known to cause long-term or irreversible physical damage. ■ (C) The cicada’s unique tymbal structure, hollow abdomen, and stamina allow it to generate noise for up to 24-hour cycles, leading to the love/hate relationship people may have with the insect. ■ (D) The cicada plays to its evolutionary strength, with the power and majesty of its song as the key to its survival.

Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 2 about the process by which the male cicada generates sound?

Question 13 of 64

14.

The Cicada's Song

Cicadas are insects famous for their ability to generate a distinct sound with an auditory power that can rival the decibel level of a rock music concert and exceed the engine roar of a motorcycle. With close to 3,000 species of cicada identified and documented, this family of insect is found worldwide. For the majority of its life, the cicada remains underground, where it is nourished and sustained through sap secreted by the roots of trees. When mature, the insect tunnels to the surface and sheds its skin to reveal its adult form. This life cycle varies among the species, with certain types maturing and ready to reproduce in just one year. One of the most eagerly anticipated and studied species of cicada is Magicicada Septendecim, a periodical brood that attracts plenty of media attention for its emergence every 13 or 17 years across the Midwestern United States in vast, swarming numbers. In these swarms, the cicadas generate their “music,” signaling their presence, and the onset of summer, for anyone and anything to hear for miles and miles around.

Only male cicadas are able to generate the sound their species is known for, utilizing a unique physical trait and noise-making process that differentiates them from crickets, which many people incorrectly assume to be similar to cicadas. While crickets generate their distinctive chirp through stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts, cicadas essentially produce a drumbeat amplified very much in the same way that the sound of an acoustic guitar is created. Males are blessed with a body part known as a tymbal, which is a rigid and pliable exoskeleton-based appendage that can move in a wave-like manner, producing a clicking when it strikes the inside of the abdomen of the cicada. Because the abdomen of the cicada is for the most part hollow, the clicking sound is amplified, giving the cicada’s song its famous power.

The primary purpose of the male cicada’s song is to attract a female with which to breed. Cicadas tend to be very well camouflaged, and can blend into their surrounding tree-based environments easily. The song of the cicada provides the clues through which the female cicada can find the nearest male. However, the cicada also appears to use its song for defensive purposes in a unique way. Whereas most insects and animals aim to scare off potential dangers by increasing the volume of their warning sounds (e.g. the rattlesnake), cicadas, when threatened, actually diminish the noise that they make. The reason for this is that cicadas are hardly ever alone in a given area, and thus it is difficult for a hunter to pick out the song of an individual insect while distracted by its neighbors. Should a predator be detected, nearby cicadas become very quiet to decrease the odds that they will be singled out among the roar of their more distant kin.

Scientists who study the cicada raise interesting observations about the evolutionary development of the cicada song and the cicada’s short breeding period. Cicadas live underground for most of their lives and only rise to the surface for several days or weeks at most to find a mate and then die. The reason for this lies in the sedentary nature of the cicada, which makes the insect an easy target for birds and other predators, which consume the insects in great numbers. However, by emerging in the millions all at once, cicadas increase their chance of survival as a species into the next generation, as predators simply cannot significantly impact the numbers of their prey in such a brief period. Meanwhile, the power of the cicada song has proven to be an effective tool for collective breeding, as each insect must locate a mate quickly while outlasting potential predators.

Cicadas garner the attention, adoration, and sometimes scorn of the general public for the distinctive sound that they create and their occasionally suffocating abundance. ■ (A) In temperate environments all over the world, the ubiquitous buzz of the cicada’s song dominates the backdrop. ■ (B) One must be careful not to come too close to the most powerful of cicadas, whose sound, if heard from just outside the human ear, is known to cause long-term or irreversible physical damage. ■ (C) The cicada’s unique tymbal structure, hollow abdomen, and stamina allow it to generate noise for up to 24-hour cycles, leading to the love/hate relationship people may have with the insect. ■ (D) The cicada plays to its evolutionary strength, with the power and majesty of its song as the key to its survival.

According to paragraph 3, which of the following is true of the song of the cicada?

Question 14 of 64

15.

The Cicada's Song

Cicadas are insects famous for their ability to generate a distinct sound with an auditory power that can rival the decibel level of a rock music concert and exceed the engine roar of a motorcycle. With close to 3,000 species of cicada identified and documented, this family of insect is found worldwide. For the majority of its life, the cicada remains underground, where it is nourished and sustained through sap secreted by the roots of trees. When mature, the insect tunnels to the surface and sheds its skin to reveal its adult form. This life cycle varies among the species, with certain types maturing and ready to reproduce in just one year. One of the most eagerly anticipated and studied species of cicada is Magicicada Septendecim, a periodical brood that attracts plenty of media attention for its emergence every 13 or 17 years across the Midwestern United States in vast, swarming numbers. In these swarms, the cicadas generate their “music,” signaling their presence, and the onset of summer, for anyone and anything to hear for miles and miles around.

Only male cicadas are able to generate the sound their species is known for, utilizing a unique physical trait and noise-making process that differentiates them from crickets, which many people incorrectly assume to be similar to cicadas. While crickets generate their distinctive chirp through stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts, cicadas essentially produce a drumbeat amplified very much in the same way that the sound of an acoustic guitar is created. Males are blessed with a body part known as a tymbal, which is a rigid and pliable exoskeleton-based appendage that can move in a wave-like manner, producing a clicking when it strikes the inside of the abdomen of the cicada. Because the abdomen of the cicada is for the most part hollow, the clicking sound is amplified, giving the cicada’s song its famous power.

The primary purpose of the male cicada’s song is to attract a female with which to breed. Cicadas tend to be very well camouflaged, and can blend into their surrounding tree-based environments easily. The song of the cicada provides the clues through which the female cicada can find the nearest male. However, the cicada also appears to use its song for defensive purposes in a unique way. Whereas most insects and animals aim to scare off potential dangers by increasing the volume of their warning sounds (e.g. the rattlesnake), cicadas, when threatened, actually diminish the noise that they make. The reason for this is that cicadas are hardly ever alone in a given area, and thus it is difficult for a hunter to pick out the song of an individual insect while distracted by its neighbors. Should a predator be detected, nearby cicadas become very quiet to decrease the odds that they will be singled out among the roar of their more distant kin.

Scientists who study the cicada raise interesting observations about the evolutionary development of the cicada song and the cicada’s short breeding period. Cicadas live underground for most of their lives and only rise to the surface for several days or weeks at most to find a mate and then die. The reason for this lies in the sedentary nature of the cicada, which makes the insect an easy target for birds and other predators, which consume the insects in great numbers. However, by emerging in the millions all at once, cicadas increase their chance of survival as a species into the next generation, as predators simply cannot significantly impact the numbers of their prey in such a brief period. Meanwhile, the power of the cicada song has proven to be an effective tool for collective breeding, as each insect must locate a mate quickly while outlasting potential predators.

Cicadas garner the attention, adoration, and sometimes scorn of the general public for the distinctive sound that they create and their occasionally suffocating abundance. ■ (A) In temperate environments all over the world, the ubiquitous buzz of the cicada’s song dominates the backdrop. ■ (B) One must be careful not to come too close to the most powerful of cicadas, whose sound, if heard from just outside the human ear, is known to cause long-term or irreversible physical damage. ■ (C) The cicada’s unique tymbal structure, hollow abdomen, and stamina allow it to generate noise for up to 24-hour cycles, leading to the love/hate relationship people may have with the insect. ■ (D) The cicada plays to its evolutionary strength, with the power and majesty of its song as the key to its survival.

The phrase "decrease the odds" in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to

Question 15 of 64

16.

The Cicada's Song

Cicadas are insects famous for their ability to generate a distinct sound with an auditory power that can rival the decibel level of a rock music concert and exceed the engine roar of a motorcycle. With close to 3,000 species of cicada identified and documented, this family of insect is found worldwide. For the majority of its life, the cicada remains underground, where it is nourished and sustained through sap secreted by the roots of trees. When mature, the insect tunnels to the surface and sheds its skin to reveal its adult form. This life cycle varies among the species, with certain types maturing and ready to reproduce in just one year. One of the most eagerly anticipated and studied species of cicada is Magicicada Septendecim, a periodical brood that attracts plenty of media attention for its emergence every 13 or 17 years across the Midwestern United States in vast, swarming numbers. In these swarms, the cicadas generate their “music,” signaling their presence, and the onset of summer, for anyone and anything to hear for miles and miles around.

Only male cicadas are able to generate the sound their species is known for, utilizing a unique physical trait and noise-making process that differentiates them from crickets, which many people incorrectly assume to be similar to cicadas. While crickets generate their distinctive chirp through stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts, cicadas essentially produce a drumbeat amplified very much in the same way that the sound of an acoustic guitar is created. Males are blessed with a body part known as a tymbal, which is a rigid and pliable exoskeleton-based appendage that can move in a wave-like manner, producing a clicking when it strikes the inside of the abdomen of the cicada. Because the abdomen of the cicada is for the most part hollow, the clicking sound is amplified, giving the cicada’s song its famous power.

The primary purpose of the male cicada’s song is to attract a female with which to breed. Cicadas tend to be very well camouflaged, and can blend into their surrounding tree-based environments easily. The song of the cicada provides the clues through which the female cicada can find the nearest male. However, the cicada also appears to use its song for defensive purposes in a unique way. Whereas most insects and animals aim to scare off potential dangers by increasing the volume of their warning sounds (e.g. the rattlesnake), cicadas, when threatened, actually diminish the noise that they make. The reason for this is that cicadas are hardly ever alone in a given area, and thus it is difficult for a hunter to pick out the song of an individual insect while distracted by its neighbors. Should a predator be detected, nearby cicadas become very quiet to decrease the odds that they will be singled out among the roar of their more distant kin.

Scientists who study the cicada raise interesting observations about the evolutionary development of the cicada song and the cicada’s short breeding period. Cicadas live underground for most of their lives and only rise to the surface for several days or weeks at most to find a mate and then die. The reason for this lies in the sedentary nature of the cicada, which makes the insect an easy target for birds and other predators, which consume the insects in great numbers. However, by emerging in the millions all at once, cicadas increase their chance of survival as a species into the next generation, as predators simply cannot significantly impact the numbers of their prey in such a brief period. Meanwhile, the power of the cicada song has proven to be an effective tool for collective breeding, as each insect must locate a mate quickly while outlasting potential predators.

Cicadas garner the attention, adoration, and sometimes scorn of the general public for the distinctive sound that they create and their occasionally suffocating abundance. ■ (A) In temperate environments all over the world, the ubiquitous buzz of the cicada’s song dominates the backdrop. ■ (B) One must be careful not to come too close to the most powerful of cicadas, whose sound, if heard from just outside the human ear, is known to cause long-term or irreversible physical damage. ■ (C) The cicada’s unique tymbal structure, hollow abdomen, and stamina allow it to generate noise for up to 24-hour cycles, leading to the love/hate relationship people may have with the insect. ■ (D) The cicada plays to its evolutionary strength, with the power and majesty of its song as the key to its survival.

According to paragraph 3, when cicadas feel threatened by a predator,

Question 16 of 64

17.

The Cicada's Song

Cicadas are insects famous for their ability to generate a distinct sound with an auditory power that can rival the decibel level of a rock music concert and exceed the engine roar of a motorcycle. With close to 3,000 species of cicada identified and documented, this family of insect is found worldwide. For the majority of its life, the cicada remains underground, where it is nourished and sustained through sap secreted by the roots of trees. When mature, the insect tunnels to the surface and sheds its skin to reveal its adult form. This life cycle varies among the species, with certain types maturing and ready to reproduce in just one year. One of the most eagerly anticipated and studied species of cicada is Magicicada Septendecim, a periodical brood that attracts plenty of media attention for its emergence every 13 or 17 years across the Midwestern United States in vast, swarming numbers. In these swarms, the cicadas generate their “music,” signaling their presence, and the onset of summer, for anyone and anything to hear for miles and miles around.

Only male cicadas are able to generate the sound their species is known for, utilizing a unique physical trait and noise-making process that differentiates them from crickets, which many people incorrectly assume to be similar to cicadas. While crickets generate their distinctive chirp through stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts, cicadas essentially produce a drumbeat amplified very much in the same way that the sound of an acoustic guitar is created. Males are blessed with a body part known as a tymbal, which is a rigid and pliable exoskeleton-based appendage that can move in a wave-like manner, producing a clicking when it strikes the inside of the abdomen of the cicada. Because the abdomen of the cicada is for the most part hollow, the clicking sound is amplified, giving the cicada’s song its famous power.

The primary purpose of the male cicada’s song is to attract a female with which to breed. Cicadas tend to be very well camouflaged, and can blend into their surrounding tree-based environments easily. The song of the cicada provides the clues through which the female cicada can find the nearest male. However, the cicada also appears to use its song for defensive purposes in a unique way. Whereas most insects and animals aim to scare off potential dangers by increasing the volume of their warning sounds (e.g. the rattlesnake), cicadas, when threatened, actually diminish the noise that they make. The reason for this is that cicadas are hardly ever alone in a given area, and thus it is difficult for a hunter to pick out the song of an individual insect while distracted by its neighbors. Should a predator be detected, nearby cicadas become very quiet to decrease the odds that they will be singled out among the roar of their more distant kin.

Scientists who study the cicada raise interesting observations about the evolutionary development of the cicada song and the cicada’s short breeding period. Cicadas live underground for most of their lives and only rise to the surface for several days or weeks at most to find a mate and then die. The reason for this lies in the sedentary nature of the cicada, which makes the insect an easy target for birds and other predators, which consume the insects in great numbers. However, by emerging in the millions all at once, cicadas increase their chance of survival as a species into the next generation, as predators simply cannot significantly impact the numbers of their prey in such a brief period. Meanwhile, the power of the cicada song has proven to be an effective tool for collective breeding, as each insect must locate a mate quickly while outlasting potential predators.

Cicadas garner the attention, adoration, and sometimes scorn of the general public for the distinctive sound that they create and their occasionally suffocating abundance. ■ (A) In temperate environments all over the world, the ubiquitous buzz of the cicada’s song dominates the backdrop. ■ (B) One must be careful not to come too close to the most powerful of cicadas, whose sound, if heard from just outside the human ear, is known to cause long-term or irreversible physical damage. ■ (C) The cicada’s unique tymbal structure, hollow abdomen, and stamina allow it to generate noise for up to 24-hour cycles, leading to the love/hate relationship people may have with the insect. ■ (D) The cicada plays to its evolutionary strength, with the power and majesty of its song as the key to its survival.

According to paragraph 4, all of the following is true about cicadas EXCEPT

Question 17 of 64

18.

The Cicada's Song

Cicadas are insects famous for their ability to generate a distinct sound with an auditory power that can rival the decibel level of a rock music concert and exceed the engine roar of a motorcycle. With close to 3,000 species of cicada identified and documented, this family of insect is found worldwide. For the majority of its life, the cicada remains underground, where it is nourished and sustained through sap secreted by the roots of trees. When mature, the insect tunnels to the surface and sheds its skin to reveal its adult form. This life cycle varies among the species, with certain types maturing and ready to reproduce in just one year. One of the most eagerly anticipated and studied species of cicada is Magicicada Septendecim, a periodical brood that attracts plenty of media attention for its emergence every 13 or 17 years across the Midwestern United States in vast, swarming numbers. In these swarms, the cicadas generate their “music,” signaling their presence, and the onset of summer, for anyone and anything to hear for miles and miles around.

Only male cicadas are able to generate the sound their species is known for, utilizing a unique physical trait and noise-making process that differentiates them from crickets, which many people incorrectly assume to be similar to cicadas. While crickets generate their distinctive chirp through stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts, cicadas essentially produce a drumbeat amplified very much in the same way that the sound of an acoustic guitar is created. Males are blessed with a body part known as a tymbal, which is a rigid and pliable exoskeleton-based appendage that can move in a wave-like manner, producing a clicking when it strikes the inside of the abdomen of the cicada. Because the abdomen of the cicada is for the most part hollow, the clicking sound is amplified, giving the cicada’s song its famous power.

The primary purpose of the male cicada’s song is to attract a female with which to breed. Cicadas tend to be very well camouflaged, and can blend into their surrounding tree-based environments easily. The song of the cicada provides the clues through which the female cicada can find the nearest male. However, the cicada also appears to use its song for defensive purposes in a unique way. Whereas most insects and animals aim to scare off potential dangers by increasing the volume of their warning sounds (e.g. the rattlesnake), cicadas, when threatened, actually diminish the noise that they make. The reason for this is that cicadas are hardly ever alone in a given area, and thus it is difficult for a hunter to pick out the song of an individual insect while distracted by its neighbors. Should a predator be detected, nearby cicadas become very quiet to decrease the odds that they will be singled out among the roar of their more distant kin.

Scientists who study the cicada raise interesting observations about the evolutionary development of the cicada song and the cicada’s short breeding period. Cicadas live underground for most of their lives and only rise to the surface for several days or weeks at most to find a mate and then die. The reason for this lies in the sedentary nature of the cicada, which makes the insect an easy target for birds and other predators, which consume the insects in great numbers. However, by emerging in the millions all at once, cicadas increase their chance of survival as a species into the next generation, as predators simply cannot significantly impact the numbers of their prey in such a brief period. Meanwhile, the power of the cicada song has proven to be an effective tool for collective breeding, as each insect must locate a mate quickly while outlasting potential predators.

Cicadas garner the attention, adoration, and sometimes scorn of the general public for the distinctive sound that they create and their occasionally suffocating abundance. ■ (A) In temperate environments all over the world, the ubiquitous buzz of the cicada’s song dominates the backdrop. ■ (B) One must be careful not to come too close to the most powerful of cicadas, whose sound, if heard from just outside the human ear, is known to cause long-term or irreversible physical damage. ■ (C) The cicada’s unique tymbal structure, hollow abdomen, and stamina allow it to generate noise for up to 24-hour cycles, leading to the love/hate relationship people may have with the insect. ■ (D) The cicada plays to its evolutionary strength, with the power and majesty of its song as the key to its survival.

The word scorn in the final paragraph is closest in meaning to

Question 18 of 64

19.

The Cicada's Song

Cicadas are insects famous for their ability to generate a distinct sound with an auditory power that can rival the decibel level of a rock music concert and exceed the engine roar of a motorcycle. With close to 3,000 species of cicada identified and documented, this family of insect is found worldwide. For the majority of its life, the cicada remains underground, where it is nourished and sustained through sap secreted by the roots of trees. When mature, the insect tunnels to the surface and sheds its skin to reveal its adult form. This life cycle varies among the species, with certain types maturing and ready to reproduce in just one year. One of the most eagerly anticipated and studied species of cicada is Magicicada Septendecim, a periodical brood that attracts plenty of media attention for its emergence every 13 or 17 years across the Midwestern United States in vast, swarming numbers. In these swarms, the cicadas generate their “music,” signaling their presence, and the onset of summer, for anyone and anything to hear for miles and miles around.

Only male cicadas are able to generate the sound their species is known for, utilizing a unique physical trait and noise-making process that differentiates them from crickets, which many people incorrectly assume to be similar to cicadas. While crickets generate their distinctive chirp through stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts, cicadas essentially produce a drumbeat amplified very much in the same way that the sound of an acoustic guitar is created. Males are blessed with a body part known as a tymbal, which is a rigid and pliable exoskeleton-based appendage that can move in a wave-like manner, producing a clicking when it strikes the inside of the abdomen of the cicada. Because the abdomen of the cicada is for the most part hollow, the clicking sound is amplified, giving the cicada’s song its famous power.

The primary purpose of the male cicada’s song is to attract a female with which to breed. Cicadas tend to be very well camouflaged, and can blend into their surrounding tree-based environments easily. The song of the cicada provides the clues through which the female cicada can find the nearest male. However, the cicada also appears to use its song for defensive purposes in a unique way. Whereas most insects and animals aim to scare off potential dangers by increasing the volume of their warning sounds (e.g. the rattlesnake), cicadas, when threatened, actually diminish the noise that they make. The reason for this is that cicadas are hardly ever alone in a given area, and thus it is difficult for a hunter to pick out the song of an individual insect while distracted by its neighbors. Should a predator be detected, nearby cicadas become very quiet to decrease the odds that they will be singled out among the roar of their more distant kin.

Scientists who study the cicada raise interesting observations about the evolutionary development of the cicada song and the cicada’s short breeding period. Cicadas live underground for most of their lives and only rise to the surface for several days or weeks at most to find a mate and then die. The reason for this lies in the sedentary nature of the cicada, which makes the insect an easy target for birds and other predators, which consume the insects in great numbers. However, by emerging in the millions all at once, cicadas increase their chance of survival as a species into the next generation, as predators simply cannot significantly impact the numbers of their prey in such a brief period. Meanwhile, the power of the cicada song has proven to be an effective tool for collective breeding, as each insect must locate a mate quickly while outlasting potential predators.

Cicadas garner the attention, adoration, and sometimes scorn of the general public for the distinctive sound that they create and their occasionally suffocating abundance. ■ (A) In temperate environments all over the world, the ubiquitous buzz of the cicada’s song dominates the backdrop. ■ (B) One must be careful not to come too close to the most powerful of cicadas, whose sound, if heard from just outside the human ear, is known to cause long-term or irreversible physical damage. ■ (C) The cicada’s unique tymbal structure, hollow abdomen, and stamina allow it to generate noise for up to 24-hour cycles, leading to the love/hate relationship people may have with the insect. ■ (D) The cicada plays to its evolutionary strength, with the power and majesty of its song as the key to its survival.

The author uses the phrase “the ubiquitous buzz” in paragraph 5 in order to

Question 19 of 64

20.

The Cicada's Song

Cicadas are insects famous for their ability to generate a distinct sound with an auditory power that can rival the decibel level of a rock music concert and exceed the engine roar of a motorcycle. With close to 3,000 species of cicada identified and documented, this family of insect is found worldwide. For the majority of its life, the cicada remains underground, where it is nourished and sustained through sap secreted by the roots of trees. When mature, the insect tunnels to the surface and sheds its skin to reveal its adult form. This life cycle varies among the species, with certain types maturing and ready to reproduce in just one year. One of the most eagerly anticipated and studied species of cicada is Magicicada Septendecim, a periodical brood that attracts plenty of media attention for its emergence every 13 or 17 years across the Midwestern United States in vast, swarming numbers. In these swarms, the cicadas generate their “music,” signaling their presence, and the onset of summer, for anyone and anything to hear for miles and miles around.

Only male cicadas are able to generate the sound their species is known for, utilizing a unique physical trait and noise-making process that differentiates them from crickets, which many people incorrectly assume to be similar to cicadas. While crickets generate their distinctive chirp through stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts, cicadas essentially produce a drumbeat amplified very much in the same way that the sound of an acoustic guitar is created. Males are blessed with a body part known as a tymbal, which is a rigid and pliable exoskeleton-based appendage that can move in a wave-like manner, producing a clicking when it strikes the inside of the abdomen of the cicada. Because the abdomen of the cicada is for the most part hollow, the clicking sound is amplified, giving the cicada’s song its famous power.

The primary purpose of the male cicada’s song is to attract a female with which to breed. Cicadas tend to be very well camouflaged, and can blend into their surrounding tree-based environments easily. The song of the cicada provides the clues through which the female cicada can find the nearest male. However, the cicada also appears to use its song for defensive purposes in a unique way. Whereas most insects and animals aim to scare off potential dangers by increasing the volume of their warning sounds (e.g. the rattlesnake), cicadas, when threatened, actually diminish the noise that they make. The reason for this is that cicadas are hardly ever alone in a given area, and thus it is difficult for a hunter to pick out the song of an individual insect while distracted by its neighbors. Should a predator be detected, nearby cicadas become very quiet to decrease the odds that they will be singled out among the roar of their more distant kin.

Scientists who study the cicada raise interesting observations about the evolutionary development of the cicada song and the cicada’s short breeding period. Cicadas live underground for most of their lives and only rise to the surface for several days or weeks at most to find a mate and then die. The reason for this lies in the sedentary nature of the cicada, which makes the insect an easy target for birds and other predators, which consume the insects in great numbers. However, by emerging in the millions all at once, cicadas increase their chance of survival as a species into the next generation, as predators simply cannot significantly impact the numbers of their prey in such a brief period. Meanwhile, the power of the cicada song has proven to be an effective tool for collective breeding, as each insect must locate a mate quickly while outlasting potential predators.

Cicadas garner the attention, adoration, and sometimes scorn of the general public for the distinctive sound that they create and their occasionally suffocating abundance. ■ (A) In temperate environments all over the world, the ubiquitous buzz of the cicada’s song dominates the backdrop. ■ (B) One must be careful not to come too close to the most powerful of cicadas, whose sound, if heard from just outside the human ear, is known to cause long-term or irreversible physical damage. ■ (C) The cicada’s unique tymbal structure, hollow abdomen, and stamina allow it to generate noise for up to 24-hour cycles, leading to the love/hate relationship people may have with the insect. ■ (D) The cicada plays to its evolutionary strength, with the power and majesty of its song as the key to its survival.

Look at the four squares [▪] in paragraph 5 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

That intense volume is paired with an uncanny ability to maintain the signature song.

Where would the sentence fit best?

Question 20 of 64

21.

The Cicada's Song

Cicadas are insects famous for their ability to generate a distinct sound with an auditory power that can rival the decibel level of a rock music concert and exceed the engine roar of a motorcycle. With close to 3,000 species of cicada identified and documented, this family of insect is found worldwide. For the majority of its life, the cicada remains underground, where it is nourished and sustained through sap secreted by the roots of trees. When mature, the insect tunnels to the surface and sheds its skin to reveal its adult form. This life cycle varies among the species, with certain types maturing and ready to reproduce in just one year. One of the most eagerly anticipated and studied species of cicada is Magicicada Septendecim, a periodical brood that attracts plenty of media attention for its emergence every 13 or 17 years across the Midwestern United States in vast, swarming numbers. In these swarms, the cicadas generate their “music,” signaling their presence, and the onset of summer, for anyone and anything to hear for miles and miles around.

Only male cicadas are able to generate the sound their species is known for, utilizing a unique physical trait and noise-making process that differentiates them from crickets, which many people incorrectly assume to be similar to cicadas. While crickets generate their distinctive chirp through stridulation, or the rubbing together of body parts, cicadas essentially produce a drumbeat amplified very much in the same way that the sound of an acoustic guitar is created. Males are blessed with a body part known as a tymbal, which is a rigid and pliable exoskeleton-based appendage that can move in a wave-like manner, producing a clicking when it strikes the inside of the abdomen of the cicada. Because the abdomen of the cicada is for the most part hollow, the clicking sound is amplified, giving the cicada’s song its famous power.

The primary purpose of the male cicada’s song is to attract a female with which to breed. Cicadas tend to be very well camouflaged, and can blend into their surrounding tree-based environments easily. The song of the cicada provides the clues through which the female cicada can find the nearest male. However, the cicada also appears to use its song for defensive purposes in a unique way. Whereas most insects and animals aim to scare off potential dangers by increasing the volume of their warning sounds (e.g. the rattlesnake), cicadas, when threatened, actually diminish the noise that they make. The reason for this is that cicadas are hardly ever alone in a given area, and thus it is difficult for a hunter to pick out the song of an individual insect while distracted by its neighbors. Should a predator be detected, nearby cicadas become very quiet to decrease the odds that they will be singled out among the roar of their more distant kin.

Scientists who study the cicada raise interesting observations about the evolutionary development of the cicada song and the cicada’s short breeding period. Cicadas live underground for most of their lives and only rise to the surface for several days or weeks at most to find a mate and then die. The reason for this lies in the sedentary nature of the cicada, which makes the insect an easy target for birds and other predators, which consume the insects in great numbers. However, by emerging in the millions all at once, cicadas increase their chance of survival as a species into the next generation, as predators simply cannot significantly impact the numbers of their prey in such a brief period. Meanwhile, the power of the cicada song has proven to be an effective tool for collective breeding, as each insect must locate a mate quickly while outlasting potential predators.

Cicadas garner the attention, adoration, and sometimes scorn of the general public for the distinctive sound that they create and their occasionally suffocating abundance. ■ (A) In temperate environments all over the world, the ubiquitous buzz of the cicada’s song dominates the backdrop. ■ (B) One must be careful not to come too close to the most powerful of cicadas, whose sound, if heard from just outside the human ear, is known to cause long-term or irreversible physical damage. ■ (C) The cicada’s unique tymbal structure, hollow abdomen, and stamina allow it to generate noise for up to 24-hour cycles, leading to the love/hate relationship people may have with the insect. ■ (D) The cicada plays to its evolutionary strength, with the power and majesty of its song as the key to its survival.

Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor details in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Cicadas are insects famous around the world for their ability to generate a strong and distinct noise.

Question 21 of 64

22.

Young Adult Literature

Although the term “young adult” did not come into common use until the 1960s, many scholars contend that the genre of young adult literature began after World War II when the age group from twelve through nineteen gained widespread acceptance as a discrete developmental stage. In contrast to children’s literature, which reaffirms the child’s place in the world, young adult literature helps adolescents make sense of their world, discover they are not alone, and find their place in society. Although young adult literature focuses on teenaged characters, its dominant themes echo many of the same themes explored in global literature—love, good versus evil, personal morality, and the individual versus society. Whether the story takes place in a realistic setting, a fantasy world, or a dystopian society, young adult literature explores these themes in ways that help readers navigate the difficult passage from childhood to adulthood and encourages them to identify with the characters and imagine how they would meet the same challenges. Roberta S. Trites, a professor of English and specialist in children’s and young adult literature, posits that young adult literature ultimately reflects the struggle of adolescents to answer the question raised in T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”: “Do I dare disturb the universe?”

■ (A) Like the young people who typify its audience, young adult literature has undergone a tumultuous evolution in a relatively short time span. ■ (B) From the mid-1940s into the early twenty-first century, it sometimes reflected and sometimes challenged social norms. ■ (C) The earliest example may be Seventeenth Summer by Maureen Daly, a novel published in 1942 that explored first love and adolescent rites of passage. ■ (D) That particular work spawned similar novels focusing on the day-to-day concerns of teenagers as they developed their own music, language, dress, and attitudes, seeking to distance themselves from their parents and other adults.

In the 1950s and throughout the unruly 1960s, young adult literature took on the character of contemporary society, and its treatment of the dominant themes darkened. Two groundbreaking young adult novels— A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, published in 1951, and The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, published in 1967—offered mature and realistic looks at troubled adolescents. Michael Cart, an expert in young adult literature, noted that the focus on culture and serious themes in these two novels, among others, made it more acceptable for the next generation of young adult authors to write candidly about teen issues. During the 1970s, young adult readers learned about sexual development in Judy Blume’s Deenie, dove into the mysterious society at the heart of Lois Lowry’s novel The Giver, and suffered with the protagonist as he took a stand against authority in Robert Cormier’s novel The Chocolate War.

After a brief lull in which novels featured lighter content, focusing on relatively innocent teen social drama or Hollywood-style horror, young adult fiction experienced a resurgence of popularity at the start of the twenty-first century when authors shifted to unreal topics such as fantasy, the paranormal, and dystopia. Although these novels are set in strange worlds, the characters exhibit emotions and undergo transformative experiences that contemporary teens share and understand. “Teens are caught between two worlds, childhood and adulthood, and in young adult literature, they can navigate those two worlds and sometimes dualities of other worlds,” said Jennifer Lynn Barnes, a young adult author and scientist who studies human behavior.

Yet young adult authors have not completely abandoned realism in favor of fantasy. Novelists such as John Green and Sarah Dessen explore the same themes and adversities in realistic modern-day settings. Although they and other contemporary young adult authors do not write about worldwide cataclysms such as those in Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and Divergent, they do not shrink from the harsh realities of life that individuals must face. Protagonists come up against decisions about self-identity, race, gender, sex, and sexuality, which are universal concerns that people of all ages grapple with. Critic Michael Cart notes that all young adult literature tackles difficult themes and “equips readers for dealing with the realities of impending adulthood and for assuming the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.”

In paragraph 1, the author of the passage implies that

Question 22 of 64

23.

Young Adult Literature

Although the term “young adult” did not come into common use until the 1960s, many scholars contend that the genre of young adult literature began after World War II when the age group from twelve through nineteen gained widespread acceptance as a discrete developmental stage. In contrast to children’s literature, which reaffirms the child’s place in the world, young adult literature helps adolescents make sense of their world, discover they are not alone, and find their place in society. Although young adult literature focuses on teenaged characters, its dominant themes echo many of the same themes explored in global literature—love, good versus evil, personal morality, and the individual versus society. Whether the story takes place in a realistic setting, a fantasy world, or a dystopian society, young adult literature explores these themes in ways that help readers navigate the difficult passage from childhood to adulthood and encourages them to identify with the characters and imagine how they would meet the same challenges. Roberta S. Trites, a professor of English and specialist in children’s and young adult literature, posits that young adult literature ultimately reflects the struggle of adolescents to answer the question raised in T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”: “Do I dare disturb the universe?”

■ (A) Like the young people who typify its audience, young adult literature has undergone a tumultuous evolution in a relatively short time span. ■ (B) From the mid-1940s into the early twenty-first century, it sometimes reflected and sometimes challenged social norms. ■ (C) The earliest example may be Seventeenth Summer by Maureen Daly, a novel published in 1942 that explored first love and adolescent rites of passage. ■ (D) That particular work spawned similar novels focusing on the day-to-day concerns of teenagers as they developed their own music, language, dress, and attitudes, seeking to distance themselves from their parents and other adults.

In the 1950s and throughout the unruly 1960s, young adult literature took on the character of contemporary society, and its treatment of the dominant themes darkened. Two groundbreaking young adult novels— A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, published in 1951, and The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, published in 1967—offered mature and realistic looks at troubled adolescents. Michael Cart, an expert in young adult literature, noted that the focus on culture and serious themes in these two novels, among others, made it more acceptable for the next generation of young adult authors to write candidly about teen issues. During the 1970s, young adult readers learned about sexual development in Judy Blume’s Deenie, dove into the mysterious society at the heart of Lois Lowry’s novel The Giver, and suffered with the protagonist as he took a stand against authority in Robert Cormier’s novel The Chocolate War.

After a brief lull in which novels featured lighter content, focusing on relatively innocent teen social drama or Hollywood-style horror, young adult fiction experienced a resurgence of popularity at the start of the twenty-first century when authors shifted to unreal topics such as fantasy, the paranormal, and dystopia. Although these novels are set in strange worlds, the characters exhibit emotions and undergo transformative experiences that contemporary teens share and understand. “Teens are caught between two worlds, childhood and adulthood, and in young adult literature, they can navigate those two worlds and sometimes dualities of other worlds,” said Jennifer Lynn Barnes, a young adult author and scientist who studies human behavior.

Yet young adult authors have not completely abandoned realism in favor of fantasy. Novelists such as John Green and Sarah Dessen explore the same themes and adversities in realistic modern-day settings. Although they and other contemporary young adult authors do not write about worldwide cataclysms such as those in Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and Divergent, they do not shrink from the harsh realities of life that individuals must face. Protagonists come up against decisions about self-identity, race, gender, sex, and sexuality, which are universal concerns that people of all ages grapple with. Critic Michael Cart notes that all young adult literature tackles difficult themes and “equips readers for dealing with the realities of impending adulthood and for assuming the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.”

Why does the author mention the poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” in paragraph 1?

Question 23 of 64

24.

Young Adult Literature

Although the term “young adult” did not come into common use until the 1960s, many scholars contend that the genre of young adult literature began after World War II when the age group from twelve through nineteen gained widespread acceptance as a discrete developmental stage. In contrast to children’s literature, which reaffirms the child’s place in the world, young adult literature helps adolescents make sense of their world, discover they are not alone, and find their place in society. Although young adult literature focuses on teenaged characters, its dominant themes echo many of the same themes explored in global literature—love, good versus evil, personal morality, and the individual versus society. Whether the story takes place in a realistic setting, a fantasy world, or a dystopian society, young adult literature explores these themes in ways that help readers navigate the difficult passage from childhood to adulthood and encourages them to identify with the characters and imagine how they would meet the same challenges. Roberta S. Trites, a professor of English and specialist in children’s and young adult literature, posits that young adult literature ultimately reflects the struggle of adolescents to answer the question raised in T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”: “Do I dare disturb the universe?”

■ (A) Like the young people who typify its audience, young adult literature has undergone a tumultuous evolution in a relatively short time span. ■ (B) From the mid-1940s into the early twenty-first century, it sometimes reflected and sometimes challenged social norms. ■ (C) The earliest example may be Seventeenth Summer by Maureen Daly, a novel published in 1942 that explored first love and adolescent rites of passage. ■ (D) That particular work spawned similar novels focusing on the day-to-day concerns of teenagers as they developed their own music, language, dress, and attitudes, seeking to distance themselves from their parents and other adults.

In the 1950s and throughout the unruly 1960s, young adult literature took on the character of contemporary society, and its treatment of the dominant themes darkened. Two groundbreaking young adult novels— A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, published in 1951, and The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, published in 1967—offered mature and realistic looks at troubled adolescents. Michael Cart, an expert in young adult literature, noted that the focus on culture and serious themes in these two novels, among others, made it more acceptable for the next generation of young adult authors to write candidly about teen issues. During the 1970s, young adult readers learned about sexual development in Judy Blume’s Deenie, dove into the mysterious society at the heart of Lois Lowry’s novel The Giver, and suffered with the protagonist as he took a stand against authority in Robert Cormier’s novel The Chocolate War.

After a brief lull in which novels featured lighter content, focusing on relatively innocent teen social drama or Hollywood-style horror, young adult fiction experienced a resurgence of popularity at the start of the twenty-first century when authors shifted to unreal topics such as fantasy, the paranormal, and dystopia. Although these novels are set in strange worlds, the characters exhibit emotions and undergo transformative experiences that contemporary teens share and understand. “Teens are caught between two worlds, childhood and adulthood, and in young adult literature, they can navigate those two worlds and sometimes dualities of other worlds,” said Jennifer Lynn Barnes, a young adult author and scientist who studies human behavior.

Yet young adult authors have not completely abandoned realism in favor of fantasy. Novelists such as John Green and Sarah Dessen explore the same themes and adversities in realistic modern-day settings. Although they and other contemporary young adult authors do not write about worldwide cataclysms such as those in Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and Divergent, they do not shrink from the harsh realities of life that individuals must face. Protagonists come up against decisions about self-identity, race, gender, sex, and sexuality, which are universal concerns that people of all ages grapple with. Critic Michael Cart notes that all young adult literature tackles difficult themes and “equips readers for dealing with the realities of impending adulthood and for assuming the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.”

The phrase “that particular work” in paragraph 2 refers to

Question 24 of 64

25.

Young Adult Literature

Although the term “young adult” did not come into common use until the 1960s, many scholars contend that the genre of young adult literature began after World War II when the age group from twelve through nineteen gained widespread acceptance as a discrete developmental stage. In contrast to children’s literature, which reaffirms the child’s place in the world, young adult literature helps adolescents make sense of their world, discover they are not alone, and find their place in society. Although young adult literature focuses on teenaged characters, its dominant themes echo many of the same themes explored in global literature—love, good versus evil, personal morality, and the individual versus society. Whether the story takes place in a realistic setting, a fantasy world, or a dystopian society, young adult literature explores these themes in ways that help readers navigate the difficult passage from childhood to adulthood and encourages them to identify with the characters and imagine how they would meet the same challenges. Roberta S. Trites, a professor of English and specialist in children’s and young adult literature, posits that young adult literature ultimately reflects the struggle of adolescents to answer the question raised in T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”: “Do I dare disturb the universe?”

■ (A) Like the young people who typify its audience, young adult literature has undergone a tumultuous evolution in a relatively short time span. ■ (B) From the mid-1940s into the early twenty-first century, it sometimes reflected and sometimes challenged social norms. ■ (C) The earliest example may be Seventeenth Summer by Maureen Daly, a novel published in 1942 that explored first love and adolescent rites of passage. ■ (D) That particular work spawned similar novels focusing on the day-to-day concerns of teenagers as they developed their own music, language, dress, and attitudes, seeking to distance themselves from their parents and other adults.

In the 1950s and throughout the unruly 1960s, young adult literature took on the character of contemporary society, and its treatment of the dominant themes darkened. Two groundbreaking young adult novels— A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, published in 1951, and The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, published in 1967—offered mature and realistic looks at troubled adolescents. Michael Cart, an expert in young adult literature, noted that the focus on culture and serious themes in these two novels, among others, made it more acceptable for the next generation of young adult authors to write candidly about teen issues. During the 1970s, young adult readers learned about sexual development in Judy Blume’s Deenie, dove into the mysterious society at the heart of Lois Lowry’s novel The Giver, and suffered with the protagonist as he took a stand against authority in Robert Cormier’s novel The Chocolate War.

After a brief lull in which novels featured lighter content, focusing on relatively innocent teen social drama or Hollywood-style horror, young adult fiction experienced a resurgence of popularity at the start of the twenty-first century when authors shifted to unreal topics such as fantasy, the paranormal, and dystopia. Although these novels are set in strange worlds, the characters exhibit emotions and undergo transformative experiences that contemporary teens share and understand. “Teens are caught between two worlds, childhood and adulthood, and in young adult literature, they can navigate those two worlds and sometimes dualities of other worlds,” said Jennifer Lynn Barnes, a young adult author and scientist who studies human behavior.

Yet young adult authors have not completely abandoned realism in favor of fantasy. Novelists such as John Green and Sarah Dessen explore the same themes and adversities in realistic modern-day settings. Although they and other contemporary young adult authors do not write about worldwide cataclysms such as those in Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and Divergent, they do not shrink from the harsh realities of life that individuals must face. Protagonists come up against decisions about self-identity, race, gender, sex, and sexuality, which are universal concerns that people of all ages grapple with. Critic Michael Cart notes that all young adult literature tackles difficult themes and “equips readers for dealing with the realities of impending adulthood and for assuming the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.”

The word unruly in paragraph 3 is closest in meaning to

Question 25 of 64

26.

Young Adult Literature

Although the term “young adult” did not come into common use until the 1960s, many scholars contend that the genre of young adult literature began after World War II when the age group from twelve through nineteen gained widespread acceptance as a discrete developmental stage. In contrast to children’s literature, which reaffirms the child’s place in the world, young adult literature helps adolescents make sense of their world, discover they are not alone, and find their place in society. Although young adult literature focuses on teenaged characters, its dominant themes echo many of the same themes explored in global literature—love, good versus evil, personal morality, and the individual versus society. Whether the story takes place in a realistic setting, a fantasy world, or a dystopian society, young adult literature explores these themes in ways that help readers navigate the difficult passage from childhood to adulthood and encourages them to identify with the characters and imagine how they would meet the same challenges. Roberta S. Trites, a professor of English and specialist in children’s and young adult literature, posits that young adult literature ultimately reflects the struggle of adolescents to answer the question raised in T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”: “Do I dare disturb the universe?”

■ (A) Like the young people who typify its audience, young adult literature has undergone a tumultuous evolution in a relatively short time span. ■ (B) From the mid-1940s into the early twenty-first century, it sometimes reflected and sometimes challenged social norms. ■ (C) The earliest example may be Seventeenth Summer by Maureen Daly, a novel published in 1942 that explored first love and adolescent rites of passage. ■ (D) That particular work spawned similar novels focusing on the day-to-day concerns of teenagers as they developed their own music, language, dress, and attitudes, seeking to distance themselves from their parents and other adults.

In the 1950s and throughout the unruly 1960s, young adult literature took on the character of contemporary society, and its treatment of the dominant themes darkened. Two groundbreaking young adult novels— A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, published in 1951, and The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, published in 1967—offered mature and realistic looks at troubled adolescents. Michael Cart, an expert in young adult literature, noted that the focus on culture and serious themes in these two novels, among others, made it more acceptable for the next generation of young adult authors to write candidly about teen issues. During the 1970s, young adult readers learned about sexual development in Judy Blume’s Deenie, dove into the mysterious society at the heart of Lois Lowry’s novel The Giver, and suffered with the protagonist as he took a stand against authority in Robert Cormier’s novel The Chocolate War.

After a brief lull in which novels featured lighter content, focusing on relatively innocent teen social drama or Hollywood-style horror, young adult fiction experienced a resurgence of popularity at the start of the twenty-first century when authors shifted to unreal topics such as fantasy, the paranormal, and dystopia. Although these novels are set in strange worlds, the characters exhibit emotions and undergo transformative experiences that contemporary teens share and understand. “Teens are caught between two worlds, childhood and adulthood, and in young adult literature, they can navigate those two worlds and sometimes dualities of other worlds,” said Jennifer Lynn Barnes, a young adult author and scientist who studies human behavior.

Yet young adult authors have not completely abandoned realism in favor of fantasy. Novelists such as John Green and Sarah Dessen explore the same themes and adversities in realistic modern-day settings. Although they and other contemporary young adult authors do not write about worldwide cataclysms such as those in Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and Divergent, they do not shrink from the harsh realities of life that individuals must face. Protagonists come up against decisions about self-identity, race, gender, sex, and sexuality, which are universal concerns that people of all ages grapple with. Critic Michael Cart notes that all young adult literature tackles difficult themes and “equips readers for dealing with the realities of impending adulthood and for assuming the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.”

According to paragraph 3, young adult authors were able to write more honestly because

Question 26 of 64

27.

Young Adult Literature

Although the term “young adult” did not come into common use until the 1960s, many scholars contend that the genre of young adult literature began after World War II when the age group from twelve through nineteen gained widespread acceptance as a discrete developmental stage. In contrast to children’s literature, which reaffirms the child’s place in the world, young adult literature helps adolescents make sense of their world, discover they are not alone, and find their place in society. Although young adult literature focuses on teenaged characters, its dominant themes echo many of the same themes explored in global literature—love, good versus evil, personal morality, and the individual versus society. Whether the story takes place in a realistic setting, a fantasy world, or a dystopian society, young adult literature explores these themes in ways that help readers navigate the difficult passage from childhood to adulthood and encourages them to identify with the characters and imagine how they would meet the same challenges. Roberta S. Trites, a professor of English and specialist in children’s and young adult literature, posits that young adult literature ultimately reflects the struggle of adolescents to answer the question raised in T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”: “Do I dare disturb the universe?”

■ (A) Like the young people who typify its audience, young adult literature has undergone a tumultuous evolution in a relatively short time span. ■ (B) From the mid-1940s into the early twenty-first century, it sometimes reflected and sometimes challenged social norms. ■ (C) The earliest example may be Seventeenth Summer by Maureen Daly, a novel published in 1942 that explored first love and adolescent rites of passage. ■ (D) That particular work spawned similar novels focusing on the day-to-day concerns of teenagers as they developed their own music, language, dress, and attitudes, seeking to distance themselves from their parents and other adults.

In the 1950s and throughout the unruly 1960s, young adult literature took on the character of contemporary society, and its treatment of the dominant themes darkened. Two groundbreaking young adult novels— A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, published in 1951, and The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, published in 1967—offered mature and realistic looks at troubled adolescents. Michael Cart, an expert in young adult literature, noted that the focus on culture and serious themes in these two novels, among others, made it more acceptable for the next generation of young adult authors to write candidly about teen issues. During the 1970s, young adult readers learned about sexual development in Judy Blume’s Deenie, dove into the mysterious society at the heart of Lois Lowry’s novel The Giver, and suffered with the protagonist as he took a stand against authority in Robert Cormier’s novel The Chocolate War.

After a brief lull in which novels featured lighter content, focusing on relatively innocent teen social drama or Hollywood-style horror, young adult fiction experienced a resurgence of popularity at the start of the twenty-first century when authors shifted to unreal topics such as fantasy, the paranormal, and dystopia. Although these novels are set in strange worlds, the characters exhibit emotions and undergo transformative experiences that contemporary teens share and understand. “Teens are caught between two worlds, childhood and adulthood, and in young adult literature, they can navigate those two worlds and sometimes dualities of other worlds,” said Jennifer Lynn Barnes, a young adult author and scientist who studies human behavior.

Yet young adult authors have not completely abandoned realism in favor of fantasy. Novelists such as John Green and Sarah Dessen explore the same themes and adversities in realistic modern-day settings. Although they and other contemporary young adult authors do not write about worldwide cataclysms such as those in Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and Divergent, they do not shrink from the harsh realities of life that individuals must face. Protagonists come up against decisions about self-identity, race, gender, sex, and sexuality, which are universal concerns that people of all ages grapple with. Critic Michael Cart notes that all young adult literature tackles difficult themes and “equips readers for dealing with the realities of impending adulthood and for assuming the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.”

In paragraphs 2 and 3, the author mentions all of the following as themes in young adult literature EXCEPT

Question 27 of 64

28.

Young Adult Literature

Although the term “young adult” did not come into common use until the 1960s, many scholars contend that the genre of young adult literature began after World War II when the age group from twelve through nineteen gained widespread acceptance as a discrete developmental stage. In contrast to children’s literature, which reaffirms the child’s place in the world, young adult literature helps adolescents make sense of their world, discover they are not alone, and find their place in society. Although young adult literature focuses on teenaged characters, its dominant themes echo many of the same themes explored in global literature—love, good versus evil, personal morality, and the individual versus society. Whether the story takes place in a realistic setting, a fantasy world, or a dystopian society, young adult literature explores these themes in ways that help readers navigate the difficult passage from childhood to adulthood and encourages them to identify with the characters and imagine how they would meet the same challenges. Roberta S. Trites, a professor of English and specialist in children’s and young adult literature, posits that young adult literature ultimately reflects the struggle of adolescents to answer the question raised in T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”: “Do I dare disturb the universe?”

■ (A) Like the young people who typify its audience, young adult literature has undergone a tumultuous evolution in a relatively short time span. ■ (B) From the mid-1940s into the early twenty-first century, it sometimes reflected and sometimes challenged social norms. ■ (C) The earliest example may be Seventeenth Summer by Maureen Daly, a novel published in 1942 that explored first love and adolescent rites of passage. ■ (D) That particular work spawned similar novels focusing on the day-to-day concerns of teenagers as they developed their own music, language, dress, and attitudes, seeking to distance themselves from their parents and other adults.

In the 1950s and throughout the unruly 1960s, young adult literature took on the character of contemporary society, and its treatment of the dominant themes darkened. Two groundbreaking young adult novels— A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, published in 1951, and The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, published in 1967—offered mature and realistic looks at troubled adolescents. Michael Cart, an expert in young adult literature, noted that the focus on culture and serious themes in these two novels, among others, made it more acceptable for the next generation of young adult authors to write candidly about teen issues. During the 1970s, young adult readers learned about sexual development in Judy Blume’s Deenie, dove into the mysterious society at the heart of Lois Lowry’s novel The Giver, and suffered with the protagonist as he took a stand against authority in Robert Cormier’s novel The Chocolate War.

After a brief lull in which novels featured lighter content, focusing on relatively innocent teen social drama or Hollywood-style horror, young adult fiction experienced a resurgence of popularity at the start of the twenty-first century when authors shifted to unreal topics such as fantasy, the paranormal, and dystopia. Although these novels are set in strange worlds, the characters exhibit emotions and undergo transformative experiences that contemporary teens share and understand. “Teens are caught between two worlds, childhood and adulthood, and in young adult literature, they can navigate those two worlds and sometimes dualities of other worlds,” said Jennifer Lynn Barnes, a young adult author and scientist who studies human behavior.

Yet young adult authors have not completely abandoned realism in favor of fantasy. Novelists such as John Green and Sarah Dessen explore the same themes and adversities in realistic modern-day settings. Although they and other contemporary young adult authors do not write about worldwide cataclysms such as those in Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and Divergent, they do not shrink from the harsh realities of life that individuals must face. Protagonists come up against decisions about self-identity, race, gender, sex, and sexuality, which are universal concerns that people of all ages grapple with. Critic Michael Cart notes that all young adult literature tackles difficult themes and “equips readers for dealing with the realities of impending adulthood and for assuming the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.”

Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

Question 28 of 64

29.

Young Adult Literature

Although the term “young adult” did not come into common use until the 1960s, many scholars contend that the genre of young adult literature began after World War II when the age group from twelve through nineteen gained widespread acceptance as a discrete developmental stage. In contrast to children’s literature, which reaffirms the child’s place in the world, young adult literature helps adolescents make sense of their world, discover they are not alone, and find their place in society. Although young adult literature focuses on teenaged characters, its dominant themes echo many of the same themes explored in global literature—love, good versus evil, personal morality, and the individual versus society. Whether the story takes place in a realistic setting, a fantasy world, or a dystopian society, young adult literature explores these themes in ways that help readers navigate the difficult passage from childhood to adulthood and encourages them to identify with the characters and imagine how they would meet the same challenges. Roberta S. Trites, a professor of English and specialist in children’s and young adult literature, posits that young adult literature ultimately reflects the struggle of adolescents to answer the question raised in T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”: “Do I dare disturb the universe?”

■ (A) Like the young people who typify its audience, young adult literature has undergone a tumultuous evolution in a relatively short time span. ■ (B) From the mid-1940s into the early twenty-first century, it sometimes reflected and sometimes challenged social norms. ■ (C) The earliest example may be Seventeenth Summer by Maureen Daly, a novel published in 1942 that explored first love and adolescent rites of passage. ■ (D) That particular work spawned similar novels focusing on the day-to-day concerns of teenagers as they developed their own music, language, dress, and attitudes, seeking to distance themselves from their parents and other adults.

In the 1950s and throughout the unruly 1960s, young adult literature took on the character of contemporary society, and its treatment of the dominant themes darkened. Two groundbreaking young adult novels— A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, published in 1951, and The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, published in 1967—offered mature and realistic looks at troubled adolescents. Michael Cart, an expert in young adult literature, noted that the focus on culture and serious themes in these two novels, among others, made it more acceptable for the next generation of young adult authors to write candidly about teen issues. During the 1970s, young adult readers learned about sexual development in Judy Blume’s Deenie, dove into the mysterious society at the heart of Lois Lowry’s novel The Giver, and suffered with the protagonist as he took a stand against authority in Robert Cormier’s novel The Chocolate War.

After a brief lull in which novels featured lighter content, focusing on relatively innocent teen social drama or Hollywood-style horror, young adult fiction experienced a resurgence of popularity at the start of the twenty-first century when authors shifted to unreal topics such as fantasy, the paranormal, and dystopia. Although these novels are set in strange worlds, the characters exhibit emotions and undergo transformative experiences that contemporary teens share and understand. “Teens are caught between two worlds, childhood and adulthood, and in young adult literature, they can navigate those two worlds and sometimes dualities of other worlds,” said Jennifer Lynn Barnes, a young adult author and scientist who studies human behavior.

Yet young adult authors have not completely abandoned realism in favor of fantasy. Novelists such as John Green and Sarah Dessen explore the same themes and adversities in realistic modern-day settings. Although they and other contemporary young adult authors do not write about worldwide cataclysms such as those in Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and Divergent, they do not shrink from the harsh realities of life that individuals must face. Protagonists come up against decisions about self-identity, race, gender, sex, and sexuality, which are universal concerns that people of all ages grapple with. Critic Michael Cart notes that all young adult literature tackles difficult themes and “equips readers for dealing with the realities of impending adulthood and for assuming the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.”

Which of the following can be inferred from the quote from Michael Cart in paragraph 5?

Question 29 of 64

30.

Young Adult Literature

Although the term “young adult” did not come into common use until the 1960s, many scholars contend that the genre of young adult literature began after World War II when the age group from twelve through nineteen gained widespread acceptance as a discrete developmental stage. In contrast to children’s literature, which reaffirms the child’s place in the world, young adult literature helps adolescents make sense of their world, discover they are not alone, and find their place in society. Although young adult literature focuses on teenaged characters, its dominant themes echo many of the same themes explored in global literature—love, good versus evil, personal morality, and the individual versus society. Whether the story takes place in a realistic setting, a fantasy world, or a dystopian society, young adult literature explores these themes in ways that help readers navigate the difficult passage from childhood to adulthood and encourages them to identify with the characters and imagine how they would meet the same challenges. Roberta S. Trites, a professor of English and specialist in children’s and young adult literature, posits that young adult literature ultimately reflects the struggle of adolescents to answer the question raised in T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”: “Do I dare disturb the universe?”

■ (A) Like the young people who typify its audience, young adult literature has undergone a tumultuous evolution in a relatively short time span. ■ (B) From the mid-1940s into the early twenty-first century, it sometimes reflected and sometimes challenged social norms. ■ (C) The earliest example may be Seventeenth Summer by Maureen Daly, a novel published in 1942 that explored first love and adolescent rites of passage. ■ (D) That particular work spawned similar novels focusing on the day-to-day concerns of teenagers as they developed their own music, language, dress, and attitudes, seeking to distance themselves from their parents and other adults.

In the 1950s and throughout the unruly 1960s, young adult literature took on the character of contemporary society, and its treatment of the dominant themes darkened. Two groundbreaking young adult novels— A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, published in 1951, and The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, published in 1967—offered mature and realistic looks at troubled adolescents. Michael Cart, an expert in young adult literature, noted that the focus on culture and serious themes in these two novels, among others, made it more acceptable for the next generation of young adult authors to write candidly about teen issues. During the 1970s, young adult readers learned about sexual development in Judy Blume’s Deenie, dove into the mysterious society at the heart of Lois Lowry’s novel The Giver, and suffered with the protagonist as he took a stand against authority in Robert Cormier’s novel The Chocolate War.

After a brief lull in which novels featured lighter content, focusing on relatively innocent teen social drama or Hollywood-style horror, young adult fiction experienced a resurgence of popularity at the start of the twenty-first century when authors shifted to unreal topics such as fantasy, the paranormal, and dystopia. Although these novels are set in strange worlds, the characters exhibit emotions and undergo transformative experiences that contemporary teens share and understand. “Teens are caught between two worlds, childhood and adulthood, and in young adult literature, they can navigate those two worlds and sometimes dualities of other worlds,” said Jennifer Lynn Barnes, a young adult author and scientist who studies human behavior.

Yet young adult authors have not completely abandoned realism in favor of fantasy. Novelists such as John Green and Sarah Dessen explore the same themes and adversities in realistic modern-day settings. Although they and other contemporary young adult authors do not write about worldwide cataclysms such as those in Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and Divergent, they do not shrink from the harsh realities of life that individuals must face. Protagonists come up against decisions about self-identity, race, gender, sex, and sexuality, which are universal concerns that people of all ages grapple with. Critic Michael Cart notes that all young adult literature tackles difficult themes and “equips readers for dealing with the realities of impending adulthood and for assuming the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.”

Look at the four squares [▪] in paragraph 2 that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

In its formative years, the genre more often did the former, working with relatively light subject matter.

Where would the sentence fit best?

Question 30 of 64

31.

Young Adult Literature

Although the term “young adult” did not come into common use until the 1960s, many scholars contend that the genre of young adult literature began after World War II when the age group from twelve through nineteen gained widespread acceptance as a discrete developmental stage. In contrast to children’s literature, which reaffirms the child’s place in the world, young adult literature helps adolescents make sense of their world, discover they are not alone, and find their place in society. Although young adult literature focuses on teenaged characters, its dominant themes echo many of the same themes explored in global literature—love, good versus evil, personal morality, and the individual versus society. Whether the story takes place in a realistic setting, a fantasy world, or a dystopian society, young adult literature explores these themes in ways that help readers navigate the difficult passage from childhood to adulthood and encourages them to identify with the characters and imagine how they would meet the same challenges. Roberta S. Trites, a professor of English and specialist in children’s and young adult literature, posits that young adult literature ultimately reflects the struggle of adolescents to answer the question raised in T.S. Eliot’s poem “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock”: “Do I dare disturb the universe?”

■ (A) Like the young people who typify its audience, young adult literature has undergone a tumultuous evolution in a relatively short time span. ■ (B) From the mid-1940s into the early twenty-first century, it sometimes reflected and sometimes challenged social norms. ■ (C) The earliest example may be Seventeenth Summer by Maureen Daly, a novel published in 1942 that explored first love and adolescent rites of passage. ■ (D) That particular work spawned similar novels focusing on the day-to-day concerns of teenagers as they developed their own music, language, dress, and attitudes, seeking to distance themselves from their parents and other adults.

In the 1950s and throughout the unruly 1960s, young adult literature took on the character of contemporary society, and its treatment of the dominant themes darkened. Two groundbreaking young adult novels— A Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, published in 1951, and The Outsiders by S. E. Hinton, published in 1967—offered mature and realistic looks at troubled adolescents. Michael Cart, an expert in young adult literature, noted that the focus on culture and serious themes in these two novels, among others, made it more acceptable for the next generation of young adult authors to write candidly about teen issues. During the 1970s, young adult readers learned about sexual development in Judy Blume’s Deenie, dove into the mysterious society at the heart of Lois Lowry’s novel The Giver, and suffered with the protagonist as he took a stand against authority in Robert Cormier’s novel The Chocolate War.

After a brief lull in which novels featured lighter content, focusing on relatively innocent teen social drama or Hollywood-style horror, young adult fiction experienced a resurgence of popularity at the start of the twenty-first century when authors shifted to unreal topics such as fantasy, the paranormal, and dystopia. Although these novels are set in strange worlds, the characters exhibit emotions and undergo transformative experiences that contemporary teens share and understand. “Teens are caught between two worlds, childhood and adulthood, and in young adult literature, they can navigate those two worlds and sometimes dualities of other worlds,” said Jennifer Lynn Barnes, a young adult author and scientist who studies human behavior.

Yet young adult authors have not completely abandoned realism in favor of fantasy. Novelists such as John Green and Sarah Dessen explore the same themes and adversities in realistic modern-day settings. Although they and other contemporary young adult authors do not write about worldwide cataclysms such as those in Harry Potter, Hunger Games, and Divergent, they do not shrink from the harsh realities of life that individuals must face. Protagonists come up against decisions about self-identity, race, gender, sex, and sexuality, which are universal concerns that people of all ages grapple with. Critic Michael Cart notes that all young adult literature tackles difficult themes and “equips readers for dealing with the realities of impending adulthood and for assuming the rights and responsibilities of citizenship.”

Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some answer choices do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor details in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.

Fiction for young adults, a relatively new form of literature, took form as teenagers were first considered a distinct group of readers.

Question 31 of 64

Question 32 of 64

33. Why are smaller predators usually not classified as apex predators?

Question 33 of 64

34. Why does the professor point out differences between the diets of vultures and eagles?

Question 34 of 64

35. What is the professor’s opinion of past efforts to remove apex predators from the environment?

Question 35 of 64

36. What does the professor imply about the effect wolves have on their surrounding environment?

Question 36 of 64

37. Listen again to part of the lecture. (Click the audio below to replay what the professor said.)
Why does the professor say this?

Question 37 of 64

Question 38 of 64

39. What is one of the main goals of viral marketing?

Question 39 of 64

40. What can be inferred about how the internet has affected viral marketing?

Question 40 of 64

41. Which of the following are mentioned in the discussion as examples of viral marketing on the Internet?

Choose TWO answers.

Question 41 of 64

42. According to the professor, why are contests one of the most common forms of viral marketing?

Question 42 of 64

43. Listen again to part of the lecture. Then, answer the question. (Click the audio below to replay part of the lecture.)
Why does the professor say this?

Question 43 of 64

44. Click here to listen to the conversation audio track for the next 5 questions.

Why does the student think reviewing for the test is especially hard in her psychology class?

Question 44 of 64

45. What is the professor’s attitude toward study groups?

Question 45 of 64

46. What does the professor imply the student should do if she has any more questions about the exam?

Question 46 of 64

47. Listen again to part of the conversation. Then, answer the question. (Click the audio below to replay part of the lecture.)
Why does the professor say this?

Question 47 of 64

Question 48 of 64

49. According to the professor, why are the older examples of chimpanzee sign language in the videos significant?

Question 49 of 64

50. What is true about the use of voice in human language?

Choose TWO answers.

Question 50 of 64

51. What is displacement?

Question 51 of 64

52. What kind of language use are chimps capable of, even without human training?

Question 52 of 64

53. What is the professor’s opinion on trained chimpanzees that exhibit displacement and productivity in their language?

Question 53 of 64

Question 54 of 64

55. Why does the woman initially believe that the notices were sent in error?

Question 55 of 64

56. What can be inferred about the student?

Question 56 of 64

57. According to the woman, when did the problems with the student’s payment first begin?

Question 57 of 64

58. Listen again to part of the conversation. Then, answer the question. (Click the audio below to replay part of the lecture.)
Why does the woman say this?

Question 58 of 64

59. Use this online timer for your preparation time and response time. Record and save your answers to an audio file on your computer or mobile device.

TOEFL Speaking Task 1

You will now be asked to give your opinion about a familiar topic. After you hear the question, you will have 15 seconds to prepare your response and 45 seconds to speak.

Many people prefer watching music videos on television or the Internet rather than listening to the songs on their own. Which way of experiencing music do you think is preferable and why?

Preparation time: 15 seconds

Response time: 45 seconds

DID YOU COMPLETE YOUR RECORDING? (check yes or no)

Question 59 of 64

60. Use this online timer for your preparation time and response time. Record and save your answers to an audio file on your computer or mobile device.

TOEFL Speaking Task 2

You will now read a short passage and then listen to a conversation on the same topic. You will then be asked a question about them. After you hear the question, you will have 30 seconds to prepare your response and 60 seconds to speak.

A university has announced a new scholarship opportunity on its website. You will have 45 seconds to read the announcement. Begin reading now.

New Scholarship Offers Opportunity to Study in Rome
The university is pleased to offer an exciting new opportunity for students in the Romance Languages department. The prestigious Buonocore Scholarship allows students to study tuition-free for two semesters in Rome. Students must submit an essay exploring a specific aspect of Italian culture to the selection committee. They must also submit a detailed plan explaining how a year in Italy would provide the opportunity to further research and improve the essay. Please note that students in departments other than Romance Languages are ineligible for this opportunity.

Now, listen to the following conversation.
Click here to listen to two students discuss the announcement.

The female student expresses her opinion about why she disagrees with the university’s new policy. State her opinion and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.

Preparation time: 30 seconds

Response time: 60 seconds

DID YOU COMPLETE YOUR RECORDING? (check yes or no)

Question 60 of 64

61. Use this online timer for your preparation time and response time. Record and save your answers to an audio file on your computer or mobile device.

TOEFL Speaking Task 3

You will now read a short passage and then listen to a talk on the same academic topic. You will then be asked a question about them. After you hear the question, you will have 30 seconds to prepare your response and 60 seconds to speak.

Read a passage about the development of written language. You have 45 seconds to read the passage. Begin reading now.

Pictographs
Pictographs are very simple pictures that represent a word or idea. This artwork is the earliest known form of writing, with archaeological discoveries of pictographs dating back to 3000 BC in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Scholars believe that pictographs developed independently in many different parts of the world, including the Middle East, China, and Mesoamerica. Because early pictographs were meant to resemble physical objects, they tended to represent nouns that referred to concrete things, but as pictographs in the ancient world became visually simpler and more abstract, they stopped representing actual objects. Instead, they began to represent abstract concepts and phonetic sounds. In time, pictographs became the basis for modern writing systems.

Now, listen to the following lecture.
Click here to listen to a lecture in an art history class.

Using examples from the talk, explain how pictographs changed to become modern writing.

Preparation time: 30 seconds

Response time: 60 seconds

DID YOU COMPLETE YOUR RECORDING? (check yes or no)

Question 61 of 64

62. Use this online timer for your preparation time and response time. Record and save your answers to an audio file on your computer or mobile device.

TOEFL Speaking Task 4

Listen to the following lecture.
Click here to listen to a lecture in a biology class.

Using points and examples from the talk, explain the two types of biological selection.

Preparation time: 20 seconds

Response time: 60 seconds

DID YOU COMPLETE YOUR RECORDING? (check yes or no)

Question 62 of 64

63. Use this online timer to time preparation, reading, and response times. Save your essay to a Google Doc or to a file on your computer or mobile device.

TOEFL Writing Task 1

For this task, you will read a passage and then listen to a lecture on the same topic. You may take notes while you read and listen. Then, you will write a response to a question that asks you about the relationship between the reading and the lecture. The question does not ask you to express your personal opinion. You may refer to the reading passage again when you write, but you will only be allowed to hear the lecture one time. You may use your notes to help you answer the question. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words. You should allow 3 minutes to read the passage. After 3 minutes, listen to the lecture. Finally, allow 20 minutes to plan and write your essay. You may continue to view the passage as you write.

Review the following passage and continue.

PASSAGE

The emperor Claudius of Rome ruled an empire spanning three continents between 41 and 54 CE. His reign was of massive importance to the history of ancient European civilization. In fact, the emperor was among the most innovative, fair, and wise in all Roman history. However, because Claudius suffered from physical handicaps and spoke with a stutter, ancient authors were biased against him. Consequently, their descriptions of his time in power are almost uniformly hostile, and many ancient historians ignore all of the good that he did.

Claudius’s reign was important for its major innovations. He conquered the island of Britain and incorporated it into the Roman Empire. He also built a new harbor for Rome and oversaw the construction of several new aqueducts, which brought clean water into the city. He even created laws to protect the rights of slaves and expand Roman citizenship to new people. All of these facts suggest that he was a gifted ruler with strong judgment, despite what may be found in histories written by his detractors.

Another reason for the hostility of ancient authors toward the reign of Claudius has to do with the fact that the writers were usually of senatorial class. Claudius was not elected to power by the Senate and severely limited its traditional powers during his reign. However, illustrating his wisdom, instead of entrusting high bureaucratic positions to senators, he preferred to give them to trustworthy slaves and former slaves (freedmen), whom he felt were more loyal to him. They worked efficiently, creating a bureaucratic framework for all future emperors. Claudius should be praised for giving political opportunities to new groups of people such as former slaves and even the women of the imperial household, including his wives.

LECTURE

Listen to the following lecture.
Click here to listen to a lecture in a history class.

Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how they cast doubt on points made in the reading.

DID YOU COMPLETE YOUR ESSAY? (Check yes or no.)

Question 63 of 64

64. Use this online timer to time preparation, reading, and response times. Save your essay to a Google Doc or to a file on your computer or mobile device.

TOEFL Writing Task 2

For this task, you will write an essay in response to a question that asks you to state, explain, and support your opinion on an issue. Typically, an effective essay will contain a minimum of 300 words. The quality of your writing includes the development of your ideas, the organization of your essay, and the quality and accuracy of the language you use to express your ideas. You have 30 minutes to plan and complete your essay.

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

It is better for people to move out of their hometowns when they become adults, instead of staying in their home communities for their whole lives.

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

DID YOU COMPLETE YOUR ESSAY? (Check yes or no.)

Question 64 of 64


 

Scoring your TOEFL sample test and additional practice

How to score your Magoosh TOEFL sample test


At the end of the TOEFL sample test above, you’ll see the number of points you earned out of the total possible points. To convert this number into a scaled TOEFL score, calculate the percentage of points you earned, and then convert that percentage to a percentage of 30 scaled points. For example, if you earned 50% of the points in TOEFL Reading, that would be 50% of 30, or a scaled score of 15. For the Speaking and Writing sections, we’ve included instructions to help you grade your responses. Once you’ve graded your responses, you can calculate the percentage of points you earned out of the total possible points, and then apply that percentage to 30 scaled points as well.

For your whole test score, simply add up the scaled scores you calculated for each of your four sections. Greater details on calculating section scores and your total score can be found in this article.

We hope you like Magoosh’s TOEFL Practice Test, score calculations and all! If you’re interested in other free TOEFL practice from Magoosh, just keep reading.

Magoosh’s free TOEFL practice questions


In addition to the TOEFL sample test, Magoosh offers a series of free practice questions that are not in test form. Like the TOEFL iBT Test Questions (more on those in a minute) Magoosh’s Free TOEFL Practice Questions come in PDF form. However, if you use this question set as instructed, you can still get a very good feel for the test, even without audio or software.

This PDF comes with detailed instructions before each set. At the end, there are in-depth explanations for every question and answer. We’ve done all we can to pack tons of useful information into this PDF. Sections include:

  • Reading Section Questions
  • Listening Section Questions
  • Speaking Section Questions
  • Writing Section Questions

With these instructions and answer explanations, we take the basic format of the TOEFL iBT Test questions described below, and then bring that format to a higher, more TOEFL-like level.

If you like Magoosh’s free practice test and sample questions, then we recommend signing up for a Magoosh TOEFL plan.

Not only does Magoosh TOEFL prep offer additional practice tests, but it also packs a lot of extra perks into its product.

Magoosh TOEFL includes video explanations for practice questions, video lessons on top TOEFL concepts and strategies, and expert insights are just a few of the supplementary materials included in the Magoosh TOEFL prep. Use it with Magoosh’s free TOEFL products—like the free sample test and practice questions PDF—to take your TOEFL prep to the next level. Each practice test is easy to use, with a clean design so you won’t get lost in the software!

Plus, our student help team is here to answer your questions via email if you ever get really confused by the material.

 
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Do I need to take a practice test?

Yes! It is very important to take a TOEFL sample test (or two!) before your test day. This will help you get used to moving from section to section, and will help you learn to switch gears from reading to listening to speaking to writing.

The TOEFL exam is long and you don’t get much time to rest. You need to train your body and mind to be able to sit and take a strenuous exam. Taking timed, full-length (or slightly shortened) TOEFL sample tests will help you do this.

Why should I take a TOEFL practice test?


Are you still not convinced that taking a TOEFL practice test is a good use of your study time?

Listen to this: Not only are practice tests good for improving your stamina, but they are also a great way to discover your strengths and weaknesses, and understand where (and why) you make mistakes.

Are you good at English spelling, but find speaking in English challenging? Can you easily do well on the essay, but need to improve your reading comprehension skills? Are you a beginner asking yourself, “What is the TOEFL test, anyway?”

A TOEFL mock-test answers these questions by showing your strengths and weaknesses, and allowing you to turn those weaknesses into strengths!

When should I take a practice test?


That depends on how long you have until your TOEFL test date.

Ask yourself these questions: Are you preparing for a TOEFL that’s two weeks away or two months away? Have you already taken a test or are you just starting to study?

If you have a long time to study, then you can plan to fit in a few extra practice tests along the way.

However, if you have at least one month to study for your TOEFL, we recommend taking:

  • 1 practice test at the beginning of your prep to assess your baseline skill level
  • 1-2 practice tests during your TOEFL prep to measure your progress
  • 1 practice test at the end of your TOEFL prep to assess your current score and measure it against your goal score

After your final practice test, take some time to review and refine the skills that need last-minute help.

What is a good TOEFL practice test?


A good (high-quality) TOEFL practice test will feature questions of the same style and difficulty that you’ll encounter on test day. It will have clear answers and helpful explanations for each question. Scoring a good practice test will be easy, and directions to convert your score into the 1-30 scale for each section will be simple to understand.

Overall, you need your TOEFL sample test to provide the most authentic exam experience possible.

 
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Where can I find more TOEFL practice tests?

You now know why and when to take a TOEFL practice test, but do you know where to find a good TOEFL iBT practice test? There seem to be many floating around the internet, but you’ll want to use only trusted, high-quality resources in order to really improve your score.

Aside from the free Magoosh TOEFL Practice test, here are our top picks for free and paid TOEFL practice tests.

Free TOEFL Practice Tests

(EDITOR’S NOTE: The Quick Prep and book-based ETS resources mentioned below are a little out-of-date. In spite of this, they’re still very useful! See our guide to using older TOEFL prep materials for more information.)

If you’re studying for a long time, then you will probably want even more TOEFL practice. So, in addition to the Magoosh resources that we’ve already mentioned, we put together a collection of other free TOEFL practice tests! Continue scrolling down to read our reviews of all of them.

Get your FREE TOEFL practice test!
ETS’s Full-Length TOEFL Practice Test


The new official full-length TOEFL practice test is a great resource for free TOEFL test practice. Unlike some of the other resources on this list, the full-length practice test matches the format of the new version of the TOEFL that ETS released in 2019.

Magoosh

The only difference between this free practice test from ETS and the real one is that the practice test does not have an onscreen timer. However, the practice test does mention the time limits on the instruction screens that appear before each section. The practice test also includes audio samples of Speaking responses, with scores and commentary, as well as scored sample Writing responses with explanations.

TOEFL iBT Practice Sets


With no audio recordings (transcripts only), no software, and almost no answer explanations, the TOEFL Practice Sets are the least helpful set of TOEFL prep questions. Note, however, that I said there are almost no answer explanations. The Speaking sets include tips on how to give a good response to each question. And the Writing portion goes a step further, including tips for good responses, and sample essays with scores and scorer commentary.

The practice sets have a different landing page for each of the four sections: TOEFL Reading, TOEFL Listening, TOEFL Speaking, and TOEFL Writing. Each page has a little bit of practice material right on the page, followed by a link to a PDF that reproduces the practice material from the web page, and also includes additional practice sets.

Included in iBT Practice Sets, you’ll find:

  • One full standard-sized Reading section (3 passages with 10 questions each)
  • One full extra-long Listening section (3 conversations with 5 questions each, 4 lectures with 6 questions each)
  • Two full Speaking sections (8 tasks)
  • Two full Writing sections (4 tasks)

That gives you one of every type of question that’s on the TOEFL, although it’s not a very test-like experience. If you want to mimic a real practice test for free, try the Magoosh TOEFL sample test listed above instead.

ETS Quick Prep: The Big, Free Official TOEFL Sample Test


(NOTE: TOEFL Quick Prep is slightly outdated, reflecting the old format of the practice tests. See Magoosh’s guide to using older TOEFL prep materials. And be sure to check out ETS’s recently updated free TOEFL practice: the official TOEFL practice test, and the official TOEFL practice sets.)

There are four more PDFs similar to the “Test Questions” set that ETS calls “TOEFL Quick Prep.” But this time, there’s audio! Well, there is audio for two of the PDFs. Each of the four PDFs is almost perfectly a half of a test:

  • One Reading task (⅓)
  • Three Listening tasks (½)
  • Three Speaking tasks (½)
  • One Writing task (½)
  • BONUS: Magoosh has created additional unofficial audio for TOEFL Quick Prep Volume 1 and TOEFL Quick Prep Volume 2. This audio covers all of the lectures in the first two PDFs.

If you do volumes three and four, which both have audio, you almost do a full practice test, minus one Reading task. You can add in a Reading task from either volume one or two and get a full-length test. But there is still one big difference between Quick Prep and a real TOEFL practice test: there is no software to show you the real look and feel of the test. That means you don’t have a timer for any of the TOEFL section. And in Listening, you are also able to look at questions during a lecture (not possible on the real TOEFL). Don’t get me wrong—Quick Prep is very useful. But with these questions, you simply don’t have the same experience and feeling that you’d have on a full TOEFL exam.

Practice for your TOEFL exam with Magoosh.

So if you’re new to the TOEFL, don’t start with Quick Prep. Instead, start with a shorter practice test from the Interactive Sampler so that you can get a feel for the software and do some light warmup practice. Then, if you want to try a full, four-hour test, you can combine the Quick Prep material to create one. (Again, keep in mind the differences between Quick Prep and real TOEFL software, of course!)

The Official TOEFL Online Course


ETS sponsors a free official online TOEFL prep class that comes with an almost complete set of practice TOEFL questions. The course, TOEFL Test Preparation: The Insider’s Guide, is hosted on the EdX website.

There are a few disadvantages to the test materials in this course. The most obvious downside is that you have to register for the class, wait for the class’s start date, and follow a course schedule. After the class starts, the practice materials aren’t released all at once. You get your Reading section in week 2, Listening in week 3, speaking in week 4, and Writing in week 5. The class is offered several times a year, but the timing may or may not fit with your TOEFL prep.

Get your FREE TOEFL practice test!

You also don’t get any test-like software through the EdX program, although the course does include videos that give you a look at real TOEFL software.

Still, this is a very good official practice test in many ways. You get complete sections for Reading, Speaking and Listening. You do only get half of a TOEFL Listening section. But there is one of each of the three kinds of TOEFL Listening audio tracks (conversation, lecture, and class discussion). So you get a real feel for TOEFL Listening, even without the complete set of 6 tracks. Another advantage to this free, almost-full TOEFL test is that it’s taken from TOEFL Practice Online (TPO). Normally, TPO is quite expensive! (See our entry on TPO later in this article.)

Paid Practice Tests

If you are able to spend a little money on TOEFL resources, then your first stop should be Magoosh. After that, if you’re looking for more resources, we recommend trying the ones listed below:

The Official Guide to the TOEFL


(NOTE: The Official Guide to the TOEFL is out-of-date, with practice materials that don’t match the format of the new 2019 format of the TOEFL. See Magoosh’s tutorial on using older TOEFL prep for advice on how to use this book.)

Although it may lack skill-building materials and the amount of practice materials it contains, ETS’s Official Guide to the TOEFL is the most accurate guidebook out there. After all, it’s written by the same company that makes the test!

The book includes three full-length tests and a CD of test software, so you can take the tests authentically. The first test is a little older, and isn’t a perfect representation of the current TOEFL iBT. Still, only small details are different; the first test is still extremely similar, and is good practice. The second and third tests are almost exactly the same as current iBT tests. The software is also very similar to what you will see on test day.

Official TOEFL iBT Test (Volumes 1 & 2)


(NOTE: Like the Official Guide to the TOEFL, these books contain practice tests that are out of date, but still useful. Again, see Magoosh’s guide to using older TOEFL prep.)

The tests in the Official Guide aren’t the only ones available for cheap. There are five more full-length TOEFL tests in a two-volume set called Official TOEFL iBT Tests.

There is one small disadvantage to these tests: if you buy the 1st edition of Official TOEFL iBT Tests Vol. 1, the exams are only on paper, with CD audio tracks; you don’t get computer software. Similar to Quick Prep, you can’t get a perfect practice test experience from this older edition of Official TOEFL iBT Tests.

However, the 2nd edition of Official TOEFL iBT Tests Volume 1 comes with a CD that’s very similar to the CD for the Official Guide. It has the five practice tests from this book, all on the same software as the Official Guide. And again, that software is good, but not perfect. Volume 2 is pretty much the same as volume 1 (2nd ed.) in structure and design, but the questions are different. Since the questions in this second volume are newly released, they’re more similar in content to the current TOEFL itself.

TOEFL Practice Online (TPO) Test


Every year, ETS sells a new set of past TOEFL tests online. These tests are called the TOEFL Practice Online (TPO) tests. Each TPO test is basically a full-length TOEFL on your home computer (Windows only). They’re the best practice tests you can buy, and they give you a score, unlike many of the options above. But there are very big downsides:

  • They’re $45 each. You can buy both volumes of Official TOEFL iBT Tests, getting TEN full tests instead of one for a similar price.
  • You can’t take them twice. After you finish a test, it’s done.
  • Despite the price, Speaking and Writing are only computer-graded. The Speaking grader is terrible, and the scoring software for Writing could be far better. You cannot trust its score.

I don’t recommend taking a TPO unless all of these are true of you, personally:

  • You have never taken the real TOEFL before (with official scores) or a TPO before.
  • You have enough money that the price is comfortable for you.
  • You become very stressed during tests like the TOEFL, and it usually hurts your score.

In other words, the TPO tests can give you practice with test anxiety, because it’s very similar to the real test. But for the most part, they’re not worthwhile because the tests in ETS books are better priced.

 
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That’s All!

We hope that you find all of these TOEFL resources helpful! Please let us know if you have any questions as you work through the Magoosh sample test. And remember: if you sign up for Magoosh TOEFL, you will have access to email support from our team!

Happy Studying!

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Most Popular Resources

53 Responses to TOEFL Practice Test: A TOEFL Sample Test from Magoosh

  1. lilia November 18, 2015 at 9:39 pm #

    I am interested about toefel

  2. Ephrem Tesfaye Desta November 19, 2015 at 12:49 am #

    Dear all:

    I am from Ethiopia.
    I have been in field work spending night in looking at stars through telescopes for astronomical site testing . I am not well prepared for my toefl-ibt exam. But the material from magoosh I found it very important. I am in last minute to take the exam!!
    Thank you for you guidance and support.

    Ephrem.

    • Doniyor November 27, 2015 at 10:05 pm #

      Hello Ephrem Tesfaye Desta, i hope you did well on TOEFL. Have gotten the results yet? what happened? Can you share any experience or feelings you got during the exam? I am so curious about the process. Thank you

  3. mwayi kalonga November 22, 2015 at 3:27 am #

    Iam interested.

  4. muluken November 22, 2015 at 11:05 am #

    I need toefl help

    • maqsood ur rahim November 13, 2016 at 9:22 am #

      I am Maqsood I live in Pakistan and my qualification mba marketing.

  5. gebremedhin November 23, 2015 at 4:16 am #

    I am applying different scholarship university for master degrees that all have the requirement to submit TOEFL test,there fore this could help me and guides me how to handle,and coupe up with my English knowledge at all.

    • hard February 27, 2018 at 11:46 pm #

      i like it

  6. Ada November 23, 2015 at 2:50 pm #

    It’s very helpful article, the TOEFL is not only test the silk of English but also time management.

  7. Abhishek Dhungel December 16, 2015 at 6:35 pm #

    Hi. I have heard so much about magoosh. I would love you to help me with the preparation of TOEFL.

  8. fatmawati December 27, 2015 at 6:53 am #

    thank you

  9. Nini January 11, 2016 at 3:34 am #

    Hi, I would love to practice more speaking and listening skills. I love Magoosh, It really helps. Frankly speaking, yesterday it helped me more than my professor 🙂

    • Rachel Wisuri
      Rachel Wisuri January 11, 2016 at 11:25 am #

      Glad we could help. 🙂 Happy studying, Nini!

    • Ahmed May 28, 2016 at 8:30 am #

      you should try listenning to 6 minutes english by BBC, it really helps with pronunciation and they usually speak clearly about familiar topics.

  10. subash kandel April 4, 2016 at 4:49 am #

    Hi ,
    I’m from nepal
    how can I improved my english speaking in TOEFL-IBT examination?
    plz help me with supporting gudelinens..

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert April 4, 2016 at 4:05 pm #

      Well, a lot of that depends on your personal strengths and weaknesses. One general piece of advice I can give is this: Remember that the structure of your response– in terms of organization, details, supporting ideas, and so on— is as important as more general aspects of English speech such as pronunciation, intonation, and grammar. True TOEFL Speaking success comes when you can perform well in every aspect of speaking that you see in the official TOEFL score guides.

    • Ishu sherpa October 10, 2016 at 7:25 pm #

      how was your toefl exam?

  11. Ishu sherpa October 10, 2016 at 7:23 pm #

    Is it possible to prepare TOEFLin just 4 days??

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert October 11, 2016 at 4:12 am #

      Hi Ishu,

      If you’re already highly confident in English and just need to learn the TOEFL test style and expectations, yes! Focus on learning what the TOEFL will ask of you and how it will ask–these hurdles are not hard to overcome quickly. There won’t be time to learn new reading strategies or master spoken English, but you can come up with a plan of attack for the test day, including learning some general answer styles for writing and speaking. Good luck! 🙂

  12. İbrahim Hakkı March 20, 2017 at 10:32 am #

    actually ı wanna correct a statement about the official practice test.It does exist ! I hope you ll be more honest in the future.

    https://toeflpractice.ets.org/

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert March 20, 2017 at 3:57 pm #

      Hi Ibrahim,

      I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding here. Please note that this blog post is discussing the lack of a free official TOEFL practice test (unlike it’s GRE counterpart who does have free content). Please note that we are not claiming that there is no official content. However, as you can see in the link you’ve provided, each mock exam costs $45.95. Sorry for any confusion–I hope this clarification helps! 🙂

  13. Bona April 9, 2017 at 11:20 am #

    HELLO ! If you are not sure about an answer , is better to not answer ( are there penalties?) or to just give it your best shot? Thank you !

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert April 9, 2017 at 2:20 pm #

      Hi Bona,

      For the TOEFL, there is no penalty for guessing, so it’s better to give it a shot. Please check out this blog post for reference! I hope this helps! 🙂

  14. Linda April 22, 2017 at 1:25 pm #

    Sorry to bother you with an other question 🙂 . During the integrated speaking session , questions 3and 4, will I be able to see the reading passage during the time that I’m speaking , or I read it once during the time frame they give you and I need to take notes ? Also during the integrated essay writing, I will be able to see the passage only in the 3 min frame , or I can go back and see it if I need too ? Thank you !

    • David Recine
      David Recine April 23, 2017 at 12:59 am #

      Great question, Linda. For Integrated Speaking, you only get to see the passage once, before you listen to the audio and give your response.But in Integrated Writing, the passage is presented to you before the lecture, but then appears back on screen again after the lecture is over. So in Writing Task 1, you’ll be able to look at the passage while you write your essay.

      • Linda April 23, 2017 at 5:14 pm #

        Thank you ! Very useful to know it before the test ! Thanks for your time and your answer 🙂

      • Finn March 1, 2018 at 1:59 am #

        Very useful to know, thank you!

        Will we get paper to take notes on or do they provide it?

        • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
          Magoosh Test Prep Expert March 1, 2018 at 7:06 am #

          Hi Finn,

          The testing center will provide scratch paper and a pencil when you are taking the test 🙂

  15. Linda April 23, 2017 at 11:35 am #

    Thank you ! And the questions continue 😂. Will I be able to stop the timer after each speaking task ( to clear my head and catch my breath ) ? Same question for the Listening , will I be able to stop the timer after the recording then start it to answer the questions ? Or stop the timer after each listening task ( or the whole listening goes as a time block ?) ? Thank you ! Appreciate your clear and quick answers so far 😊

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert April 24, 2017 at 2:44 am #

      Hi Linda,

      Unfortunately you have no control over the timer, so you have to be calm and ready to tackle the test as it comes. You can do it, though! 🙂

      • Linda April 24, 2017 at 4:05 am #

        Good to know ! Thank you! Appreciate it !

        • linda May 8, 2017 at 12:38 pm #

          thank you ! thank you! I did it !

  16. Bona April 26, 2017 at 11:28 am #

    Hello ! Do we need to give a title , a head , or something on the independent essay , or start straight with the introduction ? Thank you for your help.

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert April 27, 2017 at 6:59 am #

      There is no need to worry about a title or a heading; you can just dive right in. 🙂

      • bona May 8, 2017 at 12:43 pm #

        Thank you ! I got the results back ! I did great! thank you for your help . I will highly recommend your page ( Magoosh.com) mto anyone who is thinking about taking the test 🙂

        • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
          Magoosh Test Prep Expert May 8, 2017 at 8:52 pm #

          Hi Bona,

          Congrats! That’s great to hear, and thank you for sharing! Time for some celebration 😀

          Best of luck on your applications! 🙂

  17. Anshul June 5, 2017 at 7:48 am #

    I have signed up for TOEFL Test Preparation: The Insider’s Guide. But I dont know how to use it to practice. Can you help?

  18. Wondwosen kebede August 28, 2017 at 6:12 pm #

    Hello!
    I have signed on toefl test but i can’t participate because i dn’t understand how and when i get the test. Can you help me?

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert August 29, 2017 at 12:51 pm #

      Hello! I am confused. Do you mean that you signed up for TOEFL lessons with us or that you registered for the actual TOEFL test?

  19. Khun Maung Song November 17, 2017 at 3:56 pm #

    Great study page. Thanks!

  20. Qais February 15, 2018 at 11:42 pm #

    I need a Toefl test Questions and answers anyone can help me please

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert February 16, 2018 at 6:08 am #

      Hi Qais,

      There are plenty of places to find high-quality TOEFL test questions and answers! I recommend that you check out the following Official Materials from ETS:
      TOEFL iBT Interactive Sampler
      Test Questions
      Quick Prep

      Magoosh also has free practice questions give you a way to practice with material similar to the real exam.

      If you’re looking for high quality and affordable test prep that includes over 500 questions and 100 lessons to cover all of the strategy and information you need, you can check out our TOEFL Premium Product. Try us out with a free 7-day trial!

  21. Norah Fleur December 10, 2018 at 5:45 am #

    hi, could you please tell me where i can get the audio resources for the magoosh sample practice test?

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert December 12, 2018 at 5:52 pm #

      Hi Norah!

      When you open the Sample Test PDF, there will be links to the audio recordings embedded within it. 🙂 Once you get to the listening section, you’ll see blue links entitled “Five-minute lecture,” “Four-minute conversation,” and so on. Clicking on the links will take you to a page where the audio will play. 😀

  22. Shamsuddin Niazi January 31, 2019 at 12:04 pm #

    Dear Sir/Madam
    Good Afternoon! Would you mind send me PDF the practice test of Toefl.

    Kind regards
    Niazi

  23. nosheen June 16, 2019 at 4:44 am #

    Thank you, do magoosh provide speaking feedback? Is it for free or not?

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert June 16, 2019 at 12:53 pm #

      Hi Nosheen!

      Magoosh does not provide speaking feedback for the TOEFL at this time. 🙂 With that said, you’re absolutely welcome to try out our TOEFL prep with a free 7-day trial to see what we do include! 😀

  24. Teddy August 31, 2019 at 7:53 am #

    I need a standard current toefl mock test. My exam is on the 7th of September. I need to have an idea of my performance level of a mock on the real new exam format and make some corrections before my exam. If I can get it done with my scores available immediately I will appreciate.

    Thanks in anticipation of an immediate response

  25. Charly Arker October 23, 2019 at 10:22 pm #

    Magoosh is very useful for toefl students. I was able to get a lot of materials all thanks to Magoosh. I’m grateful for your help

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert October 25, 2019 at 1:32 pm #

      Glad to hear you enjoyed studying with us, Charly! Thanks for the note 🙂


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