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Reading Practice: TOEFL Categorize Question — Answer

The best way to get a high score on the TOEFL isn’t by cramming, but rather by making thoughtful and steady progress towards your goals. With this in mind, we’ll be going through a series of reading questions centered around one particular passage. Today, we’re looking at Caravaggio.

These posts will contain a reading passage and sample problem; I’ll provide answers and explanations in the next post. Today, let’s take a look at the answer to our sample categorize question. If you haven’t had a chance to look over the question yet, it’s repeated below; if you don’t want any spoilers, take a look at the original post here.

 

The Caravaggio Mystery

Italian painter Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610), usually known simply as “Caravaggio,” had a dramatic life, of which parts remain mysterious to scholars even today. Why, then, would it be a surprise that mysteries also surround his work? For example, The Taking of Christ, one of his paintings that had been considered lost since the eighteenth century, was rediscovered in 1990. It had hung, seemingly unrecognized, in the dining room of the Society of the Jesuits in Dublin, Ireland, for more than fifty years. The discovery that the painting was, indeed, a Caravaggio, led many to wonder how such a treasure could be hidden—seemingly in plain sight.

The first clue historians have about The Taking of Christ is in the 1603 accounts of an Italian nobleman, Ciriaco Mattei, who paid 125 “scudi” for “a painting with its frame of Christ taken in the garden.” At the time, Caravaggio’s style, with its striking use of light and dark, was admired and often imitated by both students and fellow artists. However, trends in the art world come and go, and two centuries later, Caravaggio’s work had fallen out of favor with collectors. In fact, it wouldn’t be until the 1950s that a Caravaggio “renaissance” occurred, and interest in the artist was renewed.

In the meantime, The Taking of Christ had traveled far and wide. Ironically, it was the Mattei family itself that originally misidentified the work, though several centuries after the original purchase. In 1802, the family sold it as a Honthorst to a Scottish collector. This collector kept it in his home until his death in 1921. By 1921, The Taking of Christ—now firmly attributed to Gerard van Honthorst—was auctioned off in Edinburgh for eight guineas. This would have probably been a fair price if the work had been a van Honthorst; for a true Caravaggio, though, it was the bargain of the century. An Irish doctor bought the painting and donated it to the Dublin Jesuit Society the following decade.

From the 1930s onward, The Taking of Christ hung in the offices of the Dublin Jesuits. However, the Jesuits, who had a number of old paintings in their possession, decided to bring in a conservator to discuss restoring them in the early 1990s. Sergio Benedetti, the Senior Conservator at the National Gallery of Ireland, went to the building to examine the paintings and oversee their restoration. Decades of dirt, including smoke from the fireplace above which it hung, had to be removed from the painting before Benedetti began to suspect that the painting was not a copy of the original, but the original itself.

Two graduate students from the University of Rome, Francesca Cappelletti and Laura Testa, were primarily responsible for verifying that Caravaggio did, in fact, create this version of the painting. Over years of research, they found the 1603 Mattei accounts. The verification of the painting, though, went far beyond this circumstantial evidence. Certifying that a painting came from a certain artist’s hand is not easy, though forensic science that wouldn’t have been available in the 1920s helped to attribute the work to Caravaggio definitively. The canvas underwent a number of treatments. It was X-rayed and scanned with an infrared light. The cracks on the surface of the painting (known in the industry as “craquelure”) were studied. Furthermore, The Taking of Christ underwent much analysis by art historians, who studied the form and color in the painting to determine its authenticity. For example, Caravaggio never used sketches to set up the composition of his paintings. Instead, he made marks with the end of his brush as he painted—marks that can still be visible today.

Of course, the verification of the painting required entire teams of people, in addition to the three mentioned above, and took years. By 1993, the announcement was finally made that the long-lost Caravaggio had been found. Rather than sell the painting, which is most likely worth millions of dollars, the Jesuits decided to make it available to the nation of Ireland for viewing. Thus, the painting is on “indefinite loan” to the National Gallery of Ireland. Nevertheless, the painting continues its travels as it features in exhibitions around the world, from the United States to Amsterdam. In 2010, it even travelled back to Rome to be displayed for the 400th anniversary of the painter’s death. A fitting tribute, many would say, to a mysterious master.

 

Question

Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices below and match them to the category to which they relate. ONE of the answer choices will not be used.

 

Categories: Scholars/Painters/Collectors

  1. The Jesuit Society
  2. Francesca Cappelletti
  3. Laura Testa
  4. Gerard van Honthorst
  5. The Mattei family
  6. Sergio Benedetti
  7. Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio

 

Answer

Scholars

Francesca Cappelletti

Laura Testa

 

Painters

Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio

Gerard van Honthorst

 

Collectors

The Mattei family

The Jesuit Society

 

Unused

Sergio Benedetti

 

Why this answer?

Skim the passage for the answer choices. This will take a little longer to answer than a straightforward multiple-choice question; however, it’s also worth more points, so the extra time pays off. In this case, we’re skimming for proper nouns, so the capital letters make them stand out of the rest of the passage. As you encounter names, classify them on your scrap paper according to the passage’s description of their occupation.

 

Why not the other answer?

The passage tells us that Sergio Benedetti is actually a conservator from the National Gallery of Ireland. While he is most likely highly educated, this does not necessarily make him a scholar. Use the closer cognate “academics” to describe the two women who researched the painting after his discovery.

 

How can I use this practice in my test-day strategy?

Categorize questions are tricky, because you have to check every answer choice and categorize it—even if it’s not used. Watch out for phrases or sentences that use words directly from the passage, but have slightly different meanings than the passage itself. Don’t focus too much on small details—as with the Sergio Benedetti answer above, don’t overthink categorizations. Finally, don’t bring in outside information. You, for example, might know that (hypothetically) Benedetti teaches a course at a university. However, because the passage doesn’t provide this information, we can’t use it in answering this question.

 

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4 Responses to Reading Practice: TOEFL Categorize Question — Answer

  1. Oliver June 13, 2016 at 11:11 am #

    Why is there written: TWO of the answer choices will not be used.?

    Its just one

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert June 14, 2016 at 8:52 pm #

      Hi Oliver 🙂

      Thanks for writing to us about this! You’re correct! It looks like this is a mistake in the original question. The prompt should state that one of the answer choices will not be used. I’ve let our content team know, so that this can be fixed up soon. Thanks again for your message 🙂

  2. shreya July 10, 2016 at 10:55 pm #

    Hi,

    Can we not consider “Francesca Cappelletti and Laura Testa” as painters?

    • Magoosh Test Prep Expert
      Magoosh Test Prep Expert July 12, 2016 at 1:13 pm #

      If you carefully read the context around these names, you’ll see that Cappalletti and Testa are described as “researchers.” This means that they are people who study the work of other artists, and are not artists themselves.


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