offers hundreds of practice questions and video explanations. Go there now.
Sign up or log in to Magoosh TOEFL Prep.

TOEFL Challenge Question #1: Reading Practice – EXCEPT

Update 4/2/15: Congrats to our winner, Hamed! Find the explanation to this question here and remember to check back later for more challenge questions and chances to win free Magoosh. 🙂 

Answer this question, and you could win a free premium Magoosh TOEFL account!

Here’s what to do:

1. Submit an answer and explanation in the comments of this post by 2pm on Thursday April 2nd. Make sure you fully explain your answer choice!

2. I will pick the comment with the best explanation, and this person will win a free account!

3. Comments will remain hidden until we release the answer and the winner, so don’t worry if your comment doesn’t show up immediately — we’ll still see it!

 

This post will be updated with the answer on Thursday, after the winner is announced. Good luck!

 

Passage:

History of the Chickenpox Vaccine

Chickenpox is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the Varicella zoster virus; sufferers develop a fleeting itchy rash that can spread throughout the body. The disease can last for up to 14 days and can occur in both children and adults, though the young are particularly vulnerable. Individuals infected with chickenpox can expect to experience a high but tolerable level of discomfort and a fever as the disease works its way through the system. The ailment was once considered to be a “rite of passage” by parents in the U.S. and thought to provide children with greater and improved immunity to other forms of sickness later in life. This view, however, was altered after additional research by scientists demonstrated unexpected dangers associated with the virus. Over time, the fruits of this research have transformed attitudes toward the disease and the utility of seeking preemptive measures against it.

A vaccine against chickenpox was originally invented by Michiaki Takahashi, a Japanese doctor and research scientist, in the mid-1960s. Dr. Takahashi began his work to isolate and grow the virus in 1965 and in 1972 began clinical trials with a live but weakened form of the virus that caused the human body to create antibodies. Japan and several other countries began widespread chickenpox vaccination programs in 1974. However, it took over 20 years for the chickenpox vaccine to be approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA), finally earning the U.S. government’s seal of approval for widespread use in 1995. Yet even though the chickenpox vaccine was available and recommended by the FDA, parents did not immediately choose to vaccinate their children against this disease. Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.

Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system. They reached the conclusion that Varicella zosterremains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles. As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.

 

Question:

According to paragraphs 2 and 3, all of the following is true about the chickenpox virus EXCEPT:

(A) It causes two distinct yet related ailments.

(B) People did not view it as a serious public health threat.

(C) It tended to quickly become dormant and remain inoperative over time.

(D) Vaccination against it would help prevent the onset of shingles.

 

 

 

Get at higher TOEFL score with your free Magoosh trial

8 Responses to TOEFL Challenge Question #1: Reading Practice – EXCEPT

  1. SAI March 31, 2015 at 2:59 pm #

    The answer is A.
    The parents in USA had a notion that chickenpox virus does not cause a life-threatening disease, so they did not choose to vaccinate their kids. So the statement in B is true. At the beginning of the third paragraph it is clearly mentioned that the Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, remains dormant inside the body. So the statement in C is true except the “quick” part. The third paragraph never mentions about how quickly it becomes dormant. It is pretty much clear from the last few sentences that vaccination against the chickenpox virus helps in preventing the development of shingles. So the statement in D is also true.

    • Rachel Wisuri
      Rachel April 2, 2015 at 2:33 pm #

      Hey Sai,

      Thanks for the comment! 🙂 This was a really hard problem, and the correct answer is actually (C). You were right to point out that “quickly” is not a part of the text — and that’s an important piece of information! Check out the full explanation here: https://magoosh.com/toefl/2015/challenge-question-1-answer-and-winner/

      And be sure to keep an eye out for our next challenge problem! 🙂

      Best,
      Rachel

  2. Urmila April 1, 2015 at 12:20 am #

    Answer is A
    Explanation : It is not chickenpox that causes Shingle. it’s a Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles

    • Rachel Wisuri
      Rachel April 2, 2015 at 2:34 pm #

      Hey Urmila,

      You’re on the right track, but not quite there. 🙁 Because the two diseases are caused by the same virus, they must be related, so the answer is (C). You can find the full explanation here: https://magoosh.com/toefl/2015/challenge-question-1-answer-and-winner/

      And don’t forget to check back soon for our next challenge question, and another chance to win a free account!

  3. Hamed Tavakoli April 1, 2015 at 2:44 am #

    Hi

    I’m Hamed Tavakoli from Iran.

    Answer: C

    A: The author says (P.3, L23-25), “Strong belief in that view eroded when scientists discovered the link between Varicella zoster, the virus that causes chickenpox, and shingles, a far more serious, harmful, and longer-lasting disease in older adults that impacts the nervous system.” We can infer from this sentence that Varicella zoster causes two distinct but related diseases: chickenpox and shingles.

    B: The author says (P.2, L.21-22), “Mothers and fathers typically cited the notion that chickenpox did not constitute a serious enough disease against which a person needed to be vaccinated.” We can infer from this sentence that people did not view it as a serious public health threat.

    C: The author says (P.3, L.25-27), “They reached the conclusion that Varicella zoster remains dormant inside the body, making it significantly more likely for someone to develop shingles.” We can infer from this sentence that the virus stays dormant in the body after a chickenpox, but can become active again years later and cause shingles. So it does not become inactive quickly.

    D: The author says (P.3, L.25-33), “As a result, the medical community in the U.S. encouraged the development, adoption, and use of a vaccine against chickenpox to the public. Although the appearance of chickenpox and shingles within one person can be many years apart—generally many decades—the increased risk in developing shingles as a younger adult (30-40 years old rather than 60-70 years old) proved to be enough to convince the medical community that immunization should be preferred to the traditional alternative.” We can infer from these sentences that vaccination can help reduce the risk of shingles.

    Best regards

    • Rachel Wisuri
      Rachel April 2, 2015 at 2:30 pm #

      Hey Hamed!

      Awesome explanation — you’re our winner this week. 🙂 I’ll send you an email with instructions to set up your account in just a few minutes.

      Best,
      Rachel

  4. Kenny Jeanfranco Casamayor Moreno April 1, 2015 at 1:07 pm #

    (D) Vaccination against it would help prevent the onset of shingles.

    Reading the text I understand that the vaccination wouldn’t help to prevent the onset of shingles, but would help to delay it.


Magoosh blog comment policy: To create the best experience for our readers, we will only approve comments that are relevant to the article, general enough to be helpful to other students, concise, and well-written! 😄 Due to the high volume of comments across all of our blogs, we cannot promise that all comments will receive responses from our instructors.

We highly encourage students to help each other out and respond to other students' comments if you can!

If you are a Premium Magoosh student and would like more personalized service from our instructors, you can use the Help tab on the Magoosh dashboard. Thanks!

Leave a Reply

Share
Tweet
Share
Pin