The post Trend Analysis: PMP Topics to Know appeared first on Magoosh PMP Blog.

]]>A trend analysis, in its simplest terms, is a tool and technique you can use within the project management process. Okay, do you feel like you’ve got it now? Just joking – of course you don’t, let’s spend some time discussing trend analysis and why it is a good PMP topic to know.

Beyond the simple definition provided above, a trend analysis is a mathematical tool you can use to assess your project data to determine how it is doing and forecast how it will continue to do.

It is common to see a trend analysis represented in graphical form. This way you can easily see the way your project is trending. See that trending – this means is your project on track, improving, or falling behind, as we discussed above.

Please, disregard the subject of the analysis, but here is a sample of a trend analysis as well as thorough discussion on what the data indicates. Again, this is just a helpful example, the content is not relevant to the PMP exam.

Remember in addition to understanding what a trend analysis is, it is equally important to understand how each topic relates back to the overall project management processes.

A trend analysis is a tool and technique used during the *monitor and control *phase of the project life-cycle (or process group). You will use it in the *integration, time, cost*, and *risk* knowledge areas.

If you are asking yourself, what is a tool and technique? These are the actions or items that are applied to an input to get the intend output.

Think about it, the integration knowledge area wants to understand how the 47 processes of project management work together – thus it would make sense that you want to analyze how that work is progressing.

Same with time, cost, and risk. You will want to know if your project is tracking in the direction you planned. You would not want your schedule or budget to be falling behind and know nothing about it.

Back to the definition of tool and technique, if we use the time knowledge area, we can use a trend analysis to assess our project schedule and create an output of a project change request if our project is currently falling behind schedule.

Using the trend analysis is critical to help your project complete on time, within budget, with the intended scope.

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]]>The post Topics on the PMP: Parametric Estimating appeared first on Magoosh PMP Blog.

]]>Although the first word parametric might be new, estimating is something you have likely done before. Typically in planning any activity there is a level of estimating that occurs. When you go on your family trip to the beach, do you estimate how many times you will stop during your 8 hour drive? Or do you estimate how much money you will spend on gas to get to your destination?

Parametric estimating is a certain type of estimating, and one of a few different estimating techniques you will see on the PMP exam. Parametric estimating, like all other estimating techniques, helps you determine how long something will take or how much something will cost for a project.

This means for exam purposes you will find this topic associated with ** Time Management **and

Let’s spend some time discussing parametric estimating and why a project manager might use it. As well let’s wrap up this blog by providing a few processes and tasks you might see in relationship to parametric estimating.

Parametric estimating looks at how long a task will take to complete or how much it will cost, based on a relationship of variables.

Okay, what does a relationship of variables mean. I think it is easier to explain with an example. If we look at our cost for gas, from our example above, as our task – a relationship of variables would be miles (1 variable) per gallon (1 variable). We could determine exactly how many miles we get per gallon of gas, thus allowing us to more precisely determine how much gas would cost on our trip, because we could multiple the cost of gas and the precise number of miles we will get per gallon.

Parametric estimating is strictly used for quantitative measures. There needs to be a way to get to hard numbers, not just a qualitative estimate on how long something will take.

For example, as a project manager, you could quantify how long it would take to type a document if you could understand words typed per minute, and you knew exactly how many words would be used.

However, if you were assessing how long it would take to conduct an interview with someone, there might be less hard numbers you could rely on, thus using qualitative data.

For the purpose of parametric estimating, you can only use the quantitative measures.

As I noted above you use parametric estimating within the Time and Cost management knowledge areas. You rely on items you produced in the * Scope Management* knowledge area, such as the

Additionally, you use parametric estimating within the ** Planning process group**, or project phase. You will sometimes reestimate in the

Remember as you study any topic for the exam, it is always important to understand how it relates back to the PMP Process Chart. Having a firm grasp of how all of this works together will allow you to excel on the exam.

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]]>The post Critical Path and Critical Chain Method: PMP Topics to Understand appeared first on Magoosh PMP Blog.

]]>CCR, of course! They’re a classic rock band. (You’re welcome for the background music.)

Let’s start with the basics to make sure you know your acronyms:

**CPM**– Critical Path Method**CCM**– Critical Chain Method

PMBOK defines CPM as “a method used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model”, while “CCM is a schedule method that allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule path to account for limited resources and project uncertainties” (176).

CCM builds on the methodology of CPM by more specifically defining a project buffer.

For the purposes of the PMP exam, think of CCM as a more sophisticated version of CPM. In order to really understand how CCM is determined, let’s first look at CPM.

Critical Path Method is a good name, because CPM is all about the critical path. The critical path is the sequence of activities that cannot be delayed if a project is to finish on time. CPM uses a diagram to show the progress of a project. CPM is addressed starting on page 176 of the PMBOK Guide.

Here’s the basic structure of an activity node in the CPM:

Early Start and Finish the earliest times an activity can start and finish, while Late Start and Finish are the latest.

**Total float**is the amount of float for a sequence of activities. Total float on the critical path, as you might imagine, is zero.**Free float**is float of a particular activity. Free float of an activity on the critical path is zero.

Now let’s imagine a project where you are building a tomato garden. Your activities are as follows:

- A – Select a plot of land, which can happen immediately after the start and takes 2 days.
- B – Build the garden, which comes after A and takes 7 days.
- C – Purchase the seeds & tomato cages, which can happen immediately after the start and takes one day.
- D – Plant the seeds, which takes place after B & C and takes one day.

Here’s the project in a network diagram:

Here’s how we determine the critical path. This time, we’re only looking at the Early Start, Duration, and Early Finish lines at the top. Take a close look at activity D, because it’s the most complicated one in this forward pass..

Your critical path, then is A-B-D. Notice also that to determine D’s start, you have to choose the later of B’s or C’s finish. Now let’s do the backward pass.

Now, for determining the late finish of activity C, you need to choose the latest time that it can end without impacting the critical path. That’s the day before D starts, so C can finish on Day 9. The float of Activity C is its Late Finish minus its early finish, which is 8.

I’ll make a few more important terminology introductions here about resource smoothing vs. leveling, with the caveat that this article is only a brief introduction.

**Resource smoothing**is a first effort at making sure the schedule stays on time. The technique moves around resources based on free and total float to ensure that the critical path is unaffected.**Resource leveling**is a heavier-handed approach that actually changes the critical path. It is usually used when

Float is addressed on page 177, and resource optimization is covered beginning on page 178 of the PMBOK guide. These topics are often tested on the PMBOK in conjunction with CPM diagrams, so get to know them well.

CCM exists because there is a fatal flaw with CPM. CPM doesn’t allow for any slack in the system — if you are just one day late on an activity on the critical path, your project will be delayed. For that reason, there is a strong incentive to misrepresent the length of activities on the critical path. Think about it: if you know that you have absolutely no wiggle room on a particular activity on a project, wouldn’t would overestimate that activity duration a bit to ensure that you finish on time? I would!

CCM adjusts for this problem in CPM by building in buffers. In fact, if the only fact your remember about the CCM is that it involves buffers, you’re about 90% of the way towards understanding what you need to know for the PMP exam.

There are two types of buffers:

- A
**feeding buffer**is not on the critical chain. - A
**project buffer**is at the end of the critical chain.

For CCM, you should know the characteristics of buffers and why buffers are a reasonable way to address the shortcomings of CPM. You won’t have to recreate the CCM chart on the exam like you will have to recreate the CPM one.

Remember that this article is a brief introduction to CPM and CCM, and it is written in way that hopefully makes the concepts a little more relatable. Project Time Management, however, is a crucial part of the PMP exam. For some areas, a short article describing the tool or technique is sufficient, but I recommend that you do lots of practice problems to ensure you fully understand this area.

You will get multiple questions in this area on your exam, so make sure you can accurately calculate all parts of a CPM diagram as well as accurately describe a CCM diagram. Project Time Management is not an area where you want to skim in the PMBOK Guide.

*How are you doing with CPM and CCM? Comment below, and let’s discuss!*

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]]>The post 10 PMP Math Questions You Should Be Able to Answer appeared first on Magoosh PMP Blog.

]]>You can use this article in two ways:

- If you’re just getting started, use it as an overview of the types of math questions you’ll encounter. I’ve tried to offer a variety of questions, which means you’ll encounter breadth but not depth.
- If you’ve been studying for a while, do a quick quiz with these. If you get any wrong, focus your studies in these area listed in answers.

Also, when you’re studying, you’ll want to use these resources:

**Designing Your PMP Brain Dump**– Having a well-design brain dump that you practice regularly is key to mastering PMP math questions.**Sample Earned Value Management (EVM) Questions**– EVM is the most complex question with math that you’ll encounter on the PMP exam. Spend most of your prep time here.

For the first three questions, assume you are managing the following project:

*You are the project manager of a project that is budgeted to cost $1 million at completion. The project will last ten months and its budget is spread evenly across each month. It is currently 50% complete and has so far cost $750K but only produced value of $500K.*

1. What is the schedule variance (SV) of the project?

A. $0

B. $200K

C. $500K

D. $750K

2. What is the cost performance index (CPI) of the project?

A. 0.67

B. 1

C. 1.5

D. 2

3. If the variance is not expected to continue, what is the expected estimate at completion (EAC) of the project?

A. $500K

B. $750K

C. $1 million

D. $1.25 million

4. You want to estimate the duration of an activity on your project. Your pessimistic estimate is 10 days, your most likely estimate is 5 days, and your optimistic estimate is 3 days. Using a triangular PERT distribution, what is your duration estimate?

A. 4.6 days

B. 5 days

C. 6 days

D. 9.3 days

5. You are the project manager for a medium-sized project. There are 14 team members, and everyone communicates with everyone else on the project team. How many communication channels are there?

A. 91

B. 105

C. 182

D. 210

6. You are negotiating an FPIF contract. The ceiling price is $2 million, and the target price is $1.8 million. The buyer’s share ratio is 75% for overruns. What is the target profit for the seller if the target cost for the buyer is $1.5 million?

A. $150K

B. $200K

C. $300K

D. $1.5 million

7. Activity X takes 4 days and is followed by Activity Y, which takes 3 days. The early start of Activity X is day 20, and the early start of Activity Y is day 27. What is the free float of Activity X?

A. 0

B. 3

C. 7

D. 10

8. A project is expected to result in $2 million in five years. The current interest rate is 5%. What is the PV of the project?

A. $1,359,252

B. $1,567,398

C. $1,784,972

D. $2 million

9. You must select one and only one project to take on on for your company. The net present value (NPV) for each project is as follows: Project A’s NPV is $10K, Project B’s NPV is $20K, and Project C’s NPV is $30K.

A. Project A

B. Project B

C. Project C

D. This problem cannot be solved without knowing the interest rate for each project.

10. A new state-of-the-art computer for your project costs $10K. You expect for it to last for four years and to sell it for $1K for parts. How much should you book in depreciation each year for the computer? Assume you are using straight-line depreciation.

A. $1250

B. $2000

C. $2250

D. $2500

The toughest of your PMP math will relate to EVM, or earned value management. That’s why the first three questions are on EVM. These questions weren’t so tough, but you can visit 7 Example PMP Earned Value Questions for more information. Get to know it really well!

1. **A. $0** – Schedule Variance = Earned Value – Planned Value, or SV = EV – PV. The project’s current value at 50% completion is stated in the problem as $500K. To determine the Planned Value, use the project’s original BAC times percentage complete: $1 million * 50% = $500K. SV = EV – PV = $500K – $500K = $0. The project is on schedule.

2. **A. 0.67** – Cost Performance Index = CPI = EV/AC. You determined EV in the previous problem at $500K. The problem tells you that the project has so far cost $750K, which is the AC. CPI = EV/AC = $500K/$750K = 0.67. The project is over budget.

3. **D. $1.25 million** – The variance is expected to go away, so use the formula AC + BAC – EV = $700K + $1 million – $500K = $1.2 million.

4. **C. 6 days** – Your typical PERT estimate is shown by the formula (P + 4L + O)/6, but this problem wants you to use the triangular PERT estimate instead. (P + L + O)/3 = (10 + 5 + 3)/3 = 18/3 = 6 days. Did you use the wrong formula because you were moving too fast? Remember to slow down!

5. **B. 105** – The formula for determining the number of communication channels on a project is [n(n-1)]/2, where *n* is the number of project team members. Don’t forget to include the project manager! In this problem, *n*=15, but you may have accidentally said *n*=14 if you forgot the PM.

6. **C. $300K** – This problem is a good example of (1) not just memorizing the formula but knowing what goes into it and (2) avoiding extraneous information. The problem sets you up to think that you’ll be using this formula: PTA = [(Ceiling – Target)/Buyer’s Share Ratio] + Target. Actually, you just need to know that the Target Price is made up of both the Buyer’s Target Cost and the Seller’s Target Profit. $1.8 million – $1.5 million = $300K in target profit for the seller.

7. **B. 3** – Network diagram math questions can be tricky, because they are almost like logic questions rather than math. For this one, know that free float (which is float on an activity) = ES of following activity – ES of present activity – present activity duration. We are determining the free float for Activity X. ES of following is easy because it is stated as 27. The duration of Activity X is also stated as four days. You need to use the ES information (day 20) and the duration (4 days). So since free float = ES of following activity – ES of present activity – present activity duration = 27 – 20 – 4 = 3.

8. **B. $1,567,398** – Get those PV & FV formulas on your brain dump. Again, this is one of those problems that may or may not surface on your exam. It did for me! (But depreciation didn’t.) Present Value = FV / [(1 + r)^n], where r is the rate of return and n is the number of years = $2 million / [(1 + .05)^5].

9. **C. Project C** – For project evaluation dealing with internal rate of return (IRR), return on investment (ROI), and net present value (NPV), simply pick the greatest value. Easy!

10. **C. $2250** – (Asset Cost – Scrap Value) / Useful Life = ($10K – $1K) / 4 = $2250 per year. It is possible, though not certain, that you will encounter a depreciation problem on your PMP exam, though I happened not to encounter one. Add the formulas to your brain dump anyway — a point is a point.

*Still feeling queasy about the PMP math questions? Let us know what’s stressing you out — we’re here to help!*

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]]>The post PMP Formula Questions to Study appeared first on Magoosh PMP Blog.

]]>As you prepare for the PMP exam, some of the most important things you should know are the PMP formulas. Although, PMI does not give a specific breakdown on the number of formula questions you can expect, as a former tester, I can assure you, if you do not know these formulas, a magic 8-ball might warn, “Outlook Not So Good.”

Having a firm grasp on the PMP formulas themselves will serve you well, as there are a number of straightforward questions to assess your general understanding of the formulas. However, it is arguably more important to understand why you would use a formula and what each number represents.

Let’s take some time and review the most common PMP formula questions to study for the exam. We will break the formula down to understand the name, the actual formula, the terms used within that formula, an explanation of the answer, what knowledge area the formula is used for, and finally a sample question you can expect to see on the exam.

The answers to the formula questions can be found after the table.

Name | Formula | Terms | Explanation of Solution | Knowledge Area | Sample Question |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Numbers of Communication Channels | n (n-1)/2 | n is the number of project members | The solution provides you the amount of communication channels your project has with a given number of project members. A quick hint, n includes the PM. | Communication Management | 1. Jerry recently took over a project after another project manager left. He needed to determine how many communication channels existed to ensure he was effectively reaching all his stakeholders. Looking through his stakeholder registry and removing the prior PMP, the project has 43 members. How many communication channels exist? |

Pert Estimation (aka Beta Distribution) | E= (O+4M+P)/6 | E is the best estimate of the time it will take to complete a task O is the optimistic estimate M is the most likely estimate P is the pessimistic estimate. | The solution provides you the best estimate on how long a task will take to complete. Hint: Pert or beta is the most common estimation formula, as it is more exact. Additionally, this could also be referred to as weighted estimation. | Time Management | 2. If the task has an estimate of 13 days, an optimistic estimate of 10 days, and a pessimistic estimate of 20 days. What is the weighted estimate to complete this task? |

Triangular Estimation | E= (O+M+P)/3 | E is the best estimate of the time it will take to complete a task O is the optimistic estimate M is the most likely estimate P is the pessimistic estimate. | The solution provides you the best estimate on how long a task will take to complete. Hint: On the exam this formula could also be referred to as straight estimation. | Time Management | 3. If the task has an estimate of 6 days, an optimistic estimate of 4 days, and a pessimistic estimate of 10 days. What is the straight estimate to complete this task? |

Standard Deviation | (P-O)/6 | P is the pessimistic estimate O is the optimistic estimate | This formula helps you determine the possible range an activity could take. Once you determine the standard deviation, add it and subtract it from the estimated duration you found using Pert or Triangular estimation. This will give you the range in activity. | Time Management | 4. If the task has an optimistic estimate of 7 days and a pessimistic estimate of 15 days, what is the standard deviation of the task? |

Cost Variance | CV=EV-AC | EV is earned value, or the actual value of the work completed to a certain point in a project AC is the actual cost, or the actual amount spent to a certain point in a project. | CV, cost variance, helps you determine the difference in the actual cost to date to what work is complete to date. If CV 0, the project is within budget In the simplest of terms, if CV 0, things are good! | Cost Management | 5. If planned value is 400, earned value is 350, and actual cost is 450, what is the cost variance? |

Schedule Variance | SV=EV-PV | EV is earned value, or the actual value of the work completed to a certain point in a project. PV is planned value, or the budgeted value of the work at a certain point in a project. | SV, schedule variance, helps you determine the difference in the actual work completed for the project from what was planned. If SV 0, the project is ahead of schedule In the simplest of terms, if SV 0, things are good! | Cost Management | 6. If planned value is 500, earned value is 575, and actual cost is 450, what is the schedule variance? |

Cost Performance Index | CPI= EV/AC | EV is earned value, or the actual value of the work completed to a certain point in a project AC is the actual cost, or the actual amount spent to a certain point in a project. | CPI, or cost performance index helps you determine the amount of work you are getting based on the money spent. If CPI 1, the project is within budget In the simplest of terms, if CPI 1, things are good! | Cost Management | 7. If planned value is 500, earned value is 575, and actual cost is 450, what is the cost performance index? |

Schedule Performance Index | SPI= EV/PV | EV is earned value, or the actual value of the work completed to a certain point in a project EV is earned value, or the actual value of the work completed to a certain point in a project. PV is planned value, or the budgeted value of the work at a certain point in a project. | SPI, or schedule performance index helps you determine the percentage of work complete based on the planned work rate. If SPI 1, the project is ahead of schedule. In the simplest of terms, if SPI 1, things are good! | Cost Management | 8. If planned value is 400, earned value is 350, and actual cost is 450, what is the cost variance? |

Estimate at Completion (EAC) (There are four variations of this formula based on what the question asks for. This is why it is important to understand what the numbers mean.) | 1. AC + Bottoms - up ETC 2. BAC/CPI 3. AC + (BAC - EV) 4. AC + (BAC - EV)/ (CPI x SPI) | AC is the actual cost, or the actual amount spent to a certain point in a project. EV is earned value, or the actual value of the work completed to a certain point in a project. ETC is the estimate to completion, or how much more money the project will cost to complete. BAC is budget at completion, or what was budgeted for the entire project at completion. CPI is the cost performance index, or the evaluation of work completed for the money spent. SPI is the schedule performance index, or the evaluation of work completed to work planned. | EAC, or estimate at completion helps you determine from this date forward how much you can expect the project to cost at completion. The word “at” is very important for this formula! Let’s discuss why you would use these four formulas to assess this estimate. Formula 1 uses the actual cost to date and adds the new estimated cost to completion. You would use this formula if there was a flaw in the original estimate. Formula 2 is used if the project is on target, tracking to the budget at completion and there are no variations in rate of spending expected. Formula 3 is used when there have been atypical differences in the actual cost of the project, but those differences are believed to be corrected and the remaining expenditures should be inline with what was budgeted Formula 4 is used if there are differences in the project that are expected to continue. The main difference with this formula and formula 2 is the project schedule is critical and must be met, so all expenses will need to be flexible to meet the deadline. | Cost Management | Let’s test if you can pick the right formula with these two examples: 9. In your current project the planned value is 400, earned value is 350, and actual cost is 450. Based on the work effort needed to date the team determined the original $1000 estimate is no longer valid. A reestimate of the remaining tasks is 750. What is the current estimate at completion for this project? 10. In your current project the planned value is 400, earned value is 350, and actual cost is 450. The project budgeted 1,500 at completion. Considering the challenges experienced early in the project are resolved, what is the current estimate at completion? |

To-Complete Performance Index (TCPI) | (BAC-EV)/(BAC-AC) | AC is the actual cost, or the actual amount spent to a certain point in a project. EV is earned value, or the actual value of the work completed to a certain point in a project. BAC is budget at completion, or what was budgeted for the entire project at completion. | TCPI, or to-complete performance index helps you understand what pace the remaining tasks must be completed to keep the project within budget. TCPI 1, the project does not need to change speed to complete within budget. In the simplest terms, TCPI 1 things are good! | Cost Management | 11. The project was originally budgeted to spend $2,000. At this point your actual cost is 1,500 and 1,200 worth of work is complete. What is the TCPI for the project? |

Estimate to Complete (ETC) There are two ways to find ETC | EAC - AC Reestimate | EAC, or estimate at completion helps you determine from this date forward how much the project is expected to cost at completion. AC is the actual cost, or the actual amount spent to a certain point in a project. Reestimate, means just what the name implies, use the same strategies that you used during project planning to reestimate the cost of the work remaining. | ETC, or estimate to complete helps you understand the cost remaining to complete the project. | Cost Management | 12. Your project, with a budget at completion of $1,500, currently has a planned value of 400, earned value of 350, and actual cost of 450. The current work and all variances to date are expected to continue; based on this, what is the estimate to complete the project? |

Variance at Completion (VAC) | BAC - EAC | BAC is budget at completion, or what was budgeted for the entire project at completion. EAC, or estimate at completion helps you determine from this date forward how much you expect the project to cost at completion. | VAC, variance at completion is the difference in what the budgeted cost of the project was to what we now expect the project to cost. If VAC 0, the project is within budget In the simplest terms, VAC 0 things are good! | Cost Managment | 13. Your project, with a budget at completion of $1,500, currently has a planned value of 400, earned value of 350, and actual cost of 450. The current work and all variances to date are expected to continue; based on this, what is variance at completion? |

1. **There are 946 communication channels.** * Did you remember to add yourself back into the equation? Remember the PM is always included and you removed the other PM from the team member total.*

2. **The PERT estimate is 13.667.** Did you use the PERT formula? Remember weighted, beta, and PERT all mean the same thing.

3. **The Triangular estimate is 6.667.** *Did you use the triangular formula? Remember straight and triangular are the same thing. *

4. **The Standard Deviation is 3.667.** *Note, you might get some PMP exam questions that ask you to find the range. Don’t let these fool you. You’ll need to find both the estimate and the standard deviation.*

5. **The CV is -100.** *Considering this answer is this a good thing or a bad thing? Since CV is <0, the project is over budget – which is a bad thing.*

6. **The SV is 75.** *Considering this answer is this a good thing or a bad thing? Since SV is >0, the project is ahead of schedule – which is a good thing. *

7. **The CPI is 1.278. ***Considering this answer is this a good thing or a bad thing? Since CPI is >1, the project is tracking within budget – which is a good thing. *

8. **The SPI is 0.875** *Considering this answer is this a good thing or a bad thing? Since SPI is <1, the project is tracking off schedule and not getting as much work complete for the money spent – which is a bad thing.*

9. **The EAC is $1,200.** *Did you catch that the budget was no longer valid? This should have clued you into using formula one. The additional information you need was the new estimate to completion (ETC), which was 750.*

10.** The EAC is $1,600. ***Did you catch that the challenges are corrected? This should have clued you into using formula three. *

11. **The TCPI is 1.6.** *Did you realize when the question stated work complete of 1,200 that was the earned value of the project? Remember we need to quantify work and the easiest way is using a dollar amount. Considering the answer, is this a good thing or a bad thing? Since, TCPI is > 1, the project is tracking on pace and no adjustment is need – which is a good thing.*

12. **The ETC is $1,478.** *To find ETC you probably noticed that you first need to find EAC. Reading this question, the information that variances are expected to continue should have alerted you to use formula two for EAC. Finding out that EAC is $1,928 allowed you to then find ETC. *

13. **The VAC is -$428.** *This question used the same logic as above. You must first find EAC and with the variances continuing you knew to use formula two. Finding out that EAC is $1,928 allowed you to then find VAC. Considering the answer is this a good thing or a bad thing? Since VAC is <0, the project is overspending – which is a bad thing.*

Overall this is a helpful overview of the PMP Formulas to expect on the exam.

However, if this is your first time through this blog, I would suggest spending some time reviewing the entire communication, cost, and time M=management knowledge areas. Once you review these areas and have a better grasp of why and when you use these formulas, let’s work through them again! I promise with a better understanding of what these numbers mean and why they are important, you will soar through your future attempts completing these formulas.

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