Common Parallel Structure Words in GMAT Sentence Correction

Concision is one of the goals of parallel structure.  Consider the following monstrosity of a sentence.

1a) After I get my next paycheck, I am seriously thinking about buying a jet ski, I am seriously thinking about treating my friends to dinner, and I am seriously thinking about putting some money away in savings.

Obviously, that sentence is screaming for the simplification that parallel structure brings:

1b) After I get my next paycheck, I am seriously thinking about buying a jet ski, treating my friends to dinner, and putting some money away in savings.  (Whew!)

Notice the words in 1a that were eliminated in 1b: the repeated phrase “I am seriously thinking about.”  The repetition of that phrase is precisely what makes 1a sound hideously redundant.  These words, the words that would be repeated in each piece of the parallel structure, are called the common words.


Cut the Repeated Common Words

One of the guiding principles of parallelism, one might even say the very point itself, is to streamline by eliminating repetitions of the common words.  A common GMAT Sentence Correction wrong answer choice is of the form

[common words] A, B, and [common words]C

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When A, B, and C are not single words, but rather long complicated phrases, it can be confusing to track the overall structure, and in its typical incorrect SC choices, the GMAT loves to “interrupt” the parallel structure by repeating some or all of the common words further down the list.  This can be particularly tricky if the parallel structure begins before the underlined section and ends within the underline section.  Here’s an example from the OG (one of the 20 new questions in the OG 13):


79) Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge of the literatures of Europe, China and that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as the content of his fiction.

    (A) that of Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing his literary style as much as
    (B) that of Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, and it informed his literary style as well as
    (C) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and
    (D) Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, as it informed his literary style as much as
    (E) Japan were instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style in addition to

The parallel structure in this sentence is among the three cultural regions cited: Europe, China, and Japan.  The common words are “knowledge of the literatures of”, and these words apply equal to all three terms.  Notice that, in answer choices (A) and (B), the GMAT supplies us with the classic mistake structure described above.  We have [common word] Europe, China, and [common word] Japan.  What’s particularly confusing is that the words “that of” is a very typical GMAT SC turn of a phrase, often appearing in correct answer choices.   Here, though, (A) & (B) have the classic mistake structure.  I’ll discuss the rest of this question at the end of this post.


But Keep Some Common Words

This is the rule that adds nuance to the previous principle.  When each of the three parallel elements is a single word, as is the case in the above sentence about Ryunosuke Akutagawa, then it’s appropriate to drop all repeated common words.  Often, though, especially on the GMAT SC, the parallel elements are not single words but rather long complicated phrases or clauses.  In that case, repeating a single common word, such as a preposition, can be crucial as a “signpost” for the parallel structure.  One of the more inspiring examples of this comes from a talented young writer of another hemisphere:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

In these famous words, the brilliant writer Thomas Jefferson alerts us to the parallel structure simple by introducing each new element with the word “that.”  That single word univocally illuminates the parallel structure of the sentence.  Another even loftier example:

In the midst of the candlesticks one like unto a son of man, clothed with a garment down to the foot, and girt about at the breasts with a golden girdle; and his head and his hair were white as white wool, white as snow; and his eyes were as a flame of fire; and his feet like unto burnished brass, as if it had been refined in a furnace; and his voice as the voice of many waters, and he had in his right hand seven stars: and out of his mouth proceeded a sharp two-edged sword: and his countenance was as the sun shineth in his strength.

In this richly poetic passage from the Book of Revelation (RSV, 1:13-16), the repeated word “and” acts as the signpost which guides us through the complex parallel structure.  Admittedly, the word “and” is an unlikely choice as the single repeated word on GMAT SC, and divine eschatological revelation is an exceedingly unlikely topic, but I hope this gives you a sense of the diversity of possibilities for this grammatical structure.



Because of the balance of the previous two principles, every writer has a certain amount of discretion about how many of the common words are repeated, especially when there are only two term.  Some parallel structures “bundle” the parallel items with a set of preceding signal words: for example, “both X and Y”, “neither J nor K”, “not only P but also Q” (right there are three of the GMAT’s favorite parallelism templates!)

The rule for this situation is a little more complex.  Any common word that is not repeated must precede the first word of the signal words.  Any word that appears after the first signal word must also appear after the second signal word.  One outside is correct, and both inside is also correct, but an inside/outside combination is incorrect.  For example, consider this faux sentence completion question.  (I felt a somewhat less exemplary theme was in order after the foregoing examples!)


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3) The senator bought a Valentine’s Day card for both his wife as well as for his mistress.

    (A) for both his wife as well as for his mistress.
    (B) for both his wife and also his mistress.
    (C) both for his wife as well as for his mistress.
    (D) for both his wife and for his mistress.
    (E) both for his wife and for his mistress


The first thing we have to know: the correct structure recognized by the GMAT is “both A and B.”  The GMAT views the structures “both A and also B” and “both A as well as B” as redundant and incorrect.  Knowing this, we can immediately eliminate (A) & (B) & (C).  Choice (B) would have been perfect without the word “also”, but as is, it’s wrong.  Choice (D) falls foul of the bundling rule: the first “for” is before the word “both”, which should make it apply equally to both, but then a second “for” crops up in front of “his mistress.”  One outside, one inside: the classic mistake format for this particular structure.  Only (E) gets everything correct: it has the proper “both … and” structure, and the word “for” appears twice, once in front of each term.  Another correct choice would have been “for both his wife and his mistress”, but that was not offered among these five answer choices.


An Addendum on the Ryunosuke Akutagawa question

I promised I would resolve that question from the OG.  From parallelism, we have already eliminated (A) & (B), as discussed above.  The subject of the sentence, “knowledge”, is singular, so the verb must be singular: “was”, not “were.”  That eliminates (E).  This leaves (C) and (D), which have many similarities.  One difference is the ending.  (C) ends simply with “and”, correctly completing the “both … and” structure.  (D) avoids the word “both”, and instead ends with “as much as.”  The phrase “as much as” is a comparative phrase  —– “the teacher like me as much as she like you!” — but in this context, we are not performing a comparison.  The two items in question are Akutagawa’s literary style and the content of his fiction.  These both were informed by his vast knowledge of literature, but there’s nothing in the sentence that suggests a comparison is in order.  (D) also has that awkward phrase “as it informed”, instead of the shorter and more direct “informing” in (C).  For these reasons, (D) is incorrect, and (C) is by far the best answer choice.

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17 Responses to Common Parallel Structure Words in GMAT Sentence Correction

  1. Piyush June 22, 2015 at 9:17 am #

    Hi Mike,

    Thanks for providing us valuable explanation and blog.

    My question is related to #79. The question is about noun modifier rule. As per the rule, noun should touch its modifier and here the “informing both his literary style and….” seems to modify ” Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s knowledge” then why it is coming at the end? Also, another rule suggests that verbal modifiers can be placed any where in the sentence so should not we consider this a verbal modifier, but if we do that then it doesn’t make any sense. Could you please let me know the correct noun modifier rule?


  2. Marita September 15, 2014 at 8:22 am #

    Dear Mike,

    Your posts have been absolutely invaluable in my GMAT prep and this particular one takes the cake. The part about “bundling” was something I just couldn’t figure out and you explained it so succinctly that I grasped in one read.

    Thank you so much.

    • Mike MᶜGarry
      Mike September 15, 2014 at 11:27 am #

      Dear Marita,
      You are more than welcome, my friend! 🙂 I am very glad you found this helpful. Best of luck to you!
      Mike 🙂

  3. Nikhil July 6, 2012 at 10:24 pm #

    Agree that there was no violation of parallelism, but I was asking for an explanation on why as such in (c)

    Basically, What I meant was on either side of the parallel marker “and” is
    1) His literary Style
    2) The Content of

    In terms of a meaning it makes sense and is parallel. But in terms of pure (superficial) parallelism, his and the are not parallel terms?

    • Mike MᶜGarry
      Mike July 9, 2012 at 6:18 pm #

      Nikhil: this reading is too literalistic. Yes, often the logic demands both items of the parallel construction demands both terms have the same kind of “belonging” — both “his”, or both with the impersonal “the”. Here, we are talking about “his literary style” and “the content of his fiction” — both belonging to “him” (the prepositional phrase “of his fiction” is a vital modifier). But, I point out that it’s perfectly correct, grammatically and logically, even to use a construction such as, “following his conscience and the rule of law.” Yes, it’s a “his/the” split, but it’s 100% correct.
      Does this make sense?
      Mike 🙂

    • Jp November 7, 2012 at 10:28 pm #

      Mike – Preety much everything you write is awesome…. 😀

      This is they way I looked at D ->

      Japan was instrumental in his development as a writer, informing both his literary style and the content of his fiction

      His here is used as an adjective literary style and the content of his fiction are both nouns and hence parallel.


      • Mike MᶜGarry
        Mike November 8, 2012 at 10:38 am #

        Dear Jp —
        Thank you for your kind words. I am little confused by your comment. You say — “this is the way I looked at (D)” but then you quoted (C) instead of (D). Also, your final sentence is almost completely incomprehensible because of the lack of punctuation distinguishing what you are quoting from what you are saying. I think you mean — “His” here is used an adjective; “literary style and the content of his fiction” are both nouns and hence parallel. —- If so, I couldn’t agree more: this is why the answer (C), which you quoted, is the OA.
        Mike 🙂

  4. Nikhil July 1, 2012 at 11:40 am #

    Mike: Had a question around the parallelism of option “C”

    While the meaning makes sense i.e “his style” and “the content”, I was wondering that since the parallel markers on either side of “and” are different, parallelism is violated. Is there any specific rule that I am missing here?

    • Mike MᶜGarry
      Mike July 1, 2012 at 2:54 pm #

      Nikhil: just to be clear, we are talking about the phrase from (C) — “both his literary style and the content of his fiction,” right? In my understanding, there is no violation of parallelism here. What do you mean, the “parallel markers”? I would like to understand your question.
      Mike 🙂

  5. domenico June 5, 2012 at 5:28 pm #

    I do not know why at glace your words remind me this quote from hagakure:

    Be true to the thought of the moment and avoid distraction. Other than continuing to exert yourself, enter into nothing else, but go to the extent of living single thought by single thought.”

    Thanks a lot………………..:) I’ will follow your precious advice.

    • Mike MᶜGarry
      Mike June 6, 2012 at 8:58 am #

      Domenico: Thank you very much for a cool quote! Best of luck to you, and let us know if we can support you further. Mike 🙂

  6. domenico June 5, 2012 at 4:16 pm #

    Only one question if I can …I notice (is common to other students) sometimes I pick better a tough question than an easy one; and I put in the same effort to come a solution.

    based on your experience have a suggestion about this issue ??

    thanks to you and your blog.

    PS: I also follow you from magoosh on gmatclub verbal section in particular :))


    • Mike MᶜGarry
      Mike June 5, 2012 at 5:10 pm #

      Dear Domenico: An ancient Daoist text, the *Daodejing*, says: “There is no greater misfortune than underestimating your opponent. To underestimate your opponent is to forsake your treasure” (§69). The most I can recommend is mindfulness and discipline — as soon as you get into the mindset, with any question, “this is easy”, then your concentration goes down, you take things for granted, and you set yourself up for silly oversights and careless mistakes. When you perceive things as easy, you give yourself permission to approach it with less than your best. It’s hard to do, but I would recommend: approach every question as if your entire GMAT score depended on your answer to that one question alone. Bring your whole self, your full concentration, to each and every question. You may also find this post on mindfulness helpful:
      The real discipline, the discipline of, say, a samurai, is to bring a kind of life-and-death focus to the task at hand, perform it with full concentration, and then completely let go of it. That’s a hard standard for which to strive, but I believe the one that will most support you.
      Let me know if you have any further questions.
      Mike 🙂

  7. domenico June 4, 2012 at 6:33 pm #

    i do not know the level of this question BUT 79 after and THAT it doesn’t make sens at all…..the subject is knowledge so were is incorrect. C and D: D is ackward so straight C.

    The second one a pick the wrong answer for a silly mistake to look at the question too fast……but I’m on track 😉

    They were difficult ??’ if yes I need studying hardest to avoid silly mistake.

    Thanks. 😉

    • Mike MᶜGarry
      Mike June 5, 2012 at 12:33 pm #

      The first question, from the OG, is #79 of 140 — I’d estimate at least a 600 level question, maybe a 700 level question. Question #3 is very easy: it if appeared on the GMAT at all, it would be one of the easiest questions. So, one reasonably difficult question, one easy question.

      Did you have a specific question about #79? I would be happy to answer any question you have.
      Mike 🙂

      • Dipankar February 14, 2013 at 12:11 am #

        Hi Mike 🙂
        This is my submission regarding the Ryunosuke Akutagawa‘s question.
        When in the original sentence we have the idiom “as much as” should not we then assume that the writer intends to compare the two things in question??
        In such is the case C will be a better answer, otherwise as you explained it would be D

        • Mike MᶜGarry
          Mike February 14, 2013 at 10:37 am #

          In this original, as in other GMAT incorrect sentences, the “as much as” comparison is unnecessary —- we just want to say, “his knowledge … informed A & B” — there is nothing else in the sentence supporting the comparison “A as much as B” over a simple side-by-side list “A and B.” Furthermore, the odd phrasing of (D) has numerous problems. That’s why (C) is the best answer and the OA.
          Mike 🙂

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