First, a few Sentence Correction practice questions, all on related grammatical themes.

1) Company policy restricts employees to, at most, three personal days in a month, and even less if the number of Fridays in the month is more than four.

- (A) even less if the number of Fridays in the month is more than four

(B) even less if the amount of Fridays in the month is more than four

(C) even fewer if the number of Fridays in the month is greater than four

(D) even fewer if the amount of Fridays in the month is more than four

(E) even less if the number of Fridays in the month is greater than four

2) The film professor said he regarded Leni Riefenstahl more like a pioneer of cinematographic aesthetics instead of being a Nazi propagandist.

- (A) more like a pioneer of cinematographic aesthetics instead of being

(B) more as a pioneer of cinematographic aesthetics than as

(C) more as a pioneer of cinematographic aesthetics instead of being

(D) mainly like a pioneer of cinematographic aesthetics, instead of like

(E) mainly as a pioneer of cinematographic aesthetics, as opposed to

3) For every one hundred applicants who send their resume to Megatonic Consulting, the interview committee will interview less than six of them.

- (A) the interview committee will interview less than six of them

(B) under six of them will be interviewed by the committee

(C) an interview conducted by the committee will be given to fewer than six of that hundred

(D) less than six of that hundred will have a committee interview

(E) fewer than six will be interviewed by the committee

4) Major League Baseball policy prohibits use of anabolic steroids, human growth hormone, and no illegal drugs.

- (A) and no

(B) and any

(C) or no

(D) or any

(E) or anything that would be an

5) The controversial restructuring plan for the county school district, if approved by the governor, would result in 30% fewer teachers and 15% less classroom contact-time throughout schools in the county.

- (A) in 30% fewer teachers and 15% less

(B) in 30% fewer teachers and 15% fewer

(C) in 30% less teachers and 15% less

(D) with 30% fewer teachers and 15% fewer

(E) with 30% less teachers and 15% less

Solutions will follow this article.

## Comparisons and quantities in grammar

In two previous posts, I have introduced these issues.

(a) https://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-grammar-less-vs-fewer/

(b) https://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-comparisons-more-vs-greater-and-less-vs-fewer/

The first explores the basic issue of countable vs. uncountable: this includes the infamous distinction of “less vs. fewer”, one of the most widely condoned grammatical errors in English. The second explores the grammar & idioms employed to discuss changing quantities, whether increases or decreases. This post expands into a number of related grammatical situations and idioms:

(i) **more X than Y**

(ii) **for every # P, #Q**

(iii) **not A, B, and/or C**

(iv) comparatives (increases & decreases) with countable quantities, uncountable items, pure numbers, and percents

## More X than Y

Some things in life are black and white, either this or that. Some other things, though, admit of shades of gray —- aspect #1 is more true, and aspect #2 is less true. This idiom is for such cases. The X and Y, of course, must have parallel structure. If a preposition is involved, remember the once outside or twice inside rule.

6) *She lectured the students more with a sense of duty than with any enthusiasm*.

7) *He set the table with more knives than forks*.

8) *Despite his lifelong rejection of **Quantum Mechanics**, **Einstein** was more a constructive critic than an implacable foe for the young movement*.

9) *She said she considered **Willy Mays** more an all-around superstar than simply a great hitter*.

## For every # P, # Q

This idiom is ideal for discussing ratios. Suppose items A and B are in a ratio of x:y. Then we could say: *For every x A’s, y B’s** are ….* Often, after the comma, the very next thing stated is the second number of the ratio. (This number may be qualified by an adverb or short adverbial phrase —- *only*, *at least*, *more than*, etc.) If the first number is a direct object, then the second number may follow a short [noun] + [verb] combination.

10) *For every dollar the US government spends on **education**, it spends eight dollars on **defense*.

11) *Among general employees at Ophiuchus Corporation, men and women are equally represented, but for every 17 male managers, there are only two female managers*.

12) *For every symphony **Brahms** wrote, **Haydn** wrote 26*.

13) *For every 5 drops of precipitation that falls somewhere on earth, only one falls somewhere on land*.

## “And/or” with “not” and negatives

Suppose we have three items, A, B, and C, and we could have or not have any one of them in any combination. There are eight cases.

Case #1: none

Case #2: A

Case #3: B

Case #4: C

Case #5: A + B

Case #6: A + C

Case #7: B + C

Case #8: all three

The phrase “**A, B, or C**” includes cases #2-8 — very inclusive. The phrase “**A, B, and C**” includes only case #8 — very exclusive. The word “*not*” or any other negative word (e.g. “*without*“) changes these to the *complement*: that is to say, every included in positive is excluded in the negative, and vice versa. Thus, “**not A, B, or C**” means case #1 only — very exclusive. By contrast, “**not A, B, and C**” means cases #1-7 — very inclusive. Most often in such cases, people are trying to say “none” (i.e. Case #1), and don’t realize they need the word “*or*” to say that.

## Increasing and decreasing, case A: countable nouns

Any things that can be counted one at time are countable nouns. The hallmark question for countable nouns is “*how many*?” — if you would ask “*how many X*?” then X is countable. For countable nouns:

Increase: **more** — *more cars, more books, more people, more insects, more gallons of milk, more hours, more miles*

Decrease: **fewer** — *fewer cars, fewer books, fewer people, fewer insects, fewer gallons of milk, fewer hours, fewer miles*

## Increasing and decreasing, case B: uncountable bulk

Anything that is continuous without discrete units is an uncountable noun. The hallmark question for uncountable nouns is “*how much*?” — if you would ask “*how much X*?” then X is uncountable. For uncountable nouns:

Increase: **more** — *more cheese, more rain, more fluency, more justice, more milk, more time, more distance*

Decrease: **less** — *less cheese, less rain, less fluency, less justice, less milk, less time, less distance*

## Increasing and decreasing, case C: numbers

Sometimes we have occasion to talk about either pure mathematical number (i.e. a counted number) or real-world quantities that are numbers — the price of something, the volume of something, the temperature of something, etc. Here, things are far more idiomatic. For pure numbers, counts, we use “*greater than*” and “*less than*“. For some quantities, such as price and temperature, we speak of “*higher than*” and “*lower than*“. For other, having to do with size, we speak of “*larger than*” and “*smaller than*“.

## Increasing and decreasing, case D: percents

If we are taking the percent of something countable, then we follow the countable rules, Case A above. If we are taking the percent of something uncountable, then we follow the uncountable rules, Case B above.

## Summary

If this article gave you any “aha!” moments, you may want to look over the questions at the top before reading the solutions below. Here’s another practice question:

14) http://gmat.magoosh.com/questions/3267

If you would like to add anything or have any questions, please let us know in the comments section below.

## Practice problem explanations

1) Split #1: We are talking about how many personal days. The phrase “*how many*” means countable, which means we must use “*fewer*“, not “*less*.” Only choices **(C)** & **(D)** get this correct, and the rest are wrong.

Split #2: we can count how many Fridays in a month. The phrase “*how many*” means countable, which means we must use “*number*“, not “*amount*“. Only choices **(A)** & **(C)** & **(E)** get this correct.

Split #3: the “*number*” of Fridays is a number. It probably would be acceptable to say “*more than four*“, but technically, it is better to say “*greater than four*.”

The only possible answer is **(C)**.

2) Split #1: idiom. The correct idiom is “*to regard as*“, not “to regard like”, which is always wrong. Because of this, choices **(A)** & **(E)** are incorrect.

Split #2: the correct comparative idiom is “**more P than Q**“. Only choice** (B)** uses this correctly.

The only possible answer is **(B)**.

3) Split #1: the question is: how many will the interview committee interview? The phrase “*how many*” means countable, which means we must use “*fewer*“, not “*less*” or “*under*“. Only choices **(C)** & **(E)** get this correct.

Split #2: this sentence uses the idiom **For every #P, #Q**, so we want the numerical phrase close to the beginning of the second half. Choice **(E)** begins with “fewer than six”, the numerical phrase right away. Choice **(C)** buries the numerical phrase “fewer than six” close to the end of the clause.

Split #3: concision. Choice **(E)** is sleek and elegant. By contrast, choice **(C)** distended, bloated monstrosity, way too awkward and indirect to be correct.

For all these reasons, the only possible answer is **(E)**.

4) Split #1: the word “prohibit” is already a negative. Any answer with “no” would be an incorrect double-negative. Choices **(A)** & **(C)** are incorrect.

Split #2: as discussed in this post, we want a construction that means none of item #1, none of item #2, and none of item #3. For the construction, we need the word “*or*.” Choices **(A)** & **(B)** are incorrect.

Split #3: Concision. Choice **(E)** is an wordy monstrosity that should be taken out back and shot. The hypothetical “*would be an illegal drug*” is totally inappropriate to the context. It’s not that heroin or cocaine “*would be*” illegal — they are illegal!! Choice **(E)** is far too wordy as well as illogical, so it is incorrect.

For all these reasons, the only possible answer is **(D)**.

5) Split #1: idioms. The correct idiom is “*result in*“, not “*result with*“. Choices **(D)** & **(E)** are incorrect.

Split #2: We can count teachers (“*how many teachers*?”), so we need “*fewer*” with the percent of teachers. Classroom contact-time is uncountable (“*how much classroom contact-time*?”), so we need “*less*” with this percent. Only choice **(A)** has both of these correct.

Hey Mike,

Why is classroom contact time uncountable? We can always count the time in hours right?

Does this course have a classroom contact time of 60 hours?

thanks in advance

Hi Abhay!

Thanks for reaching out to us. 🙂

The noun “time” is NOT countable in this instance, but various units of time are countable (hours, minutes, etc).

When we use “time” along with other descriptors (like “classroom contact-time” or “professional training time”) this is never countable because it is an abstract concept.

Hi there,

Thank you for this post–it’s great!

Would the following modifications to your examples above be correct?

8) Despite his lifelong rejection of Quantum Mechanics, Einstein was a constructive critic more than an implacable foe for the young movement.

9) She said she considered Willy Mays an all-around superstar more than simply a great hitter.

-SK

SK, your modifications would violate the fixed idiom structure of “more x than y,” as it should be used in GMAT SC. Those modifications might be more acceptable in other English language contexts, although many native English speakers (myself included) might find your changed wording to be a little awkward. Hope this helps. 🙂

Dear Mike

Is this sentence correct ?

Occupations pursued by right-brained people instead of left-brained people, are more likely to involve the exercise of empathy, creative thinking, and the free expression of emotion.

Or are we comparing occupations with brain ?

Thanks

Hi there,

This sentence would be correct in the following two ways (note also that we do not want to put a comma after “people”):

–

Occupations pursued by right-brained peopleinstead of byleft-brained people are more likely to involve the exercise of empathy, creative thinking, and the free expression of emotion.–

Occupations pursued by right-brained peoplerather than byleft-brained people are more likely to involve the exercise of empathy, creative thinking, and the free expression of emotion.Note that the GMAT tends to prefer “rather than” to “instead of”:

https://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idioms-of-comparison/

Dear Mr. Mike,

In video explanation of Magoosh’s question below you say that less/fewer percentage is incorrect and lower percentage is correct.

here it is mentioned that in case of percentage of countable nouns we follow case A, which says use more/fewer for increase/decrease.

Can you please help me in understanding this Idiom?

“Dorn Consulting handles much more sophisticated issues than comparable consulting firms, and they have less percentage of employees”

Dear Kassim,

I am happy to help. 🙂 This is a very tricky issue. The rule for some uses of the word “percentage” is different than the rule for numerical percents. If I have a numerical percent of a countable noun, that’s also countable:

…

fewer than 15% of all school children in the state…If I have numerical percent of an uncountable noun, that’s also uncountable:

…

less than 15% of the fluid in the human body…Those are the rules if the word “than” is involved. Something is “fewer” or “less” THAN something else. The rules are very different if the word “than” is not involved, and instead, we apply a comparative modifier to a number. This doesn’t matter for countable or uncountable nouns, but it matters in the third category: pure numbers. If the word “than” is involve, we use “less” —

3 is less than 5; my income is less than Bill Gate’s;etc. But we don’t use “less” as a comparative modifier if “than” is not involved. Then, we are modifying the word “percent” or “percentage” directly, and a percent is a number. As with many numbers, we use the comparative modifier “lower”:a lower temperaturea lower income

a lower speed

a lower percent

a lower percentage

Does all this make sense?

Mike 🙂

Hi Mike,

Can you also mention the “increasing” scenarios of the numerical percentage examples?

For numerical percent of an countable noun, I am clear that “more” should be used:

“… more than 15% of all school children in the state …”

But I am not certain about using “more”/”greater” for the numerical percent of an uncountable noun:

“… more than 15% of the fluid in the human body …”

or

“… greater than 15% of the fluid in the human body …”

Please clarify.

“More than X%” and “greater than X%” can both be acceptable, depending on the context.

When you are talking about nouns, countable, or uncountable, you want to use “more than” with percentages, as in “more than 15% of the children” (countable), “more than 15% of the fluid” (uncountable).

“Greater than” is generally used used not to directly modify nouns. Instead, greater than is used to modify

measurements of degreerelated to nouns. So you could say “a number of children greater than 15%” or “a quantity of fluid greater than 15%.” “Greater than” can also directly modify certain nouns for things that are measured by degree, such as “The intensity of X is greater than the intensity of Y,” or “the hear in that volcano is greater than the heat in the other volcano.” Here, “intensity” and “heat” are both things that can be measured by degree, so they can me modified by “greater than.” In contrast, you couldn’t say “the 20 cars in that parking lot are greater than the 11 cars in the other parking lot.” Cars are quantified, but not measured by degree.Hi Mike,

Can you please confirm if the following sentence is correct?

“Dorn Consulting has fewer percentage of employees than other consulting firm”

Going by the logic of numerical percentage of a countable noun (here employees) and the use of “than”, we should use “fewer”. However, the above usage SOUNDS terribly wrong to me.

A better SOUNDING version would be- “Dorn Consulting has a lower percentage of employees than other consulting firm”

However, I am not able to explain why I find the second version better than the first. Please help me.

Your instincts are correct, Montezuma. 🙂 What you’re missing here is that percentage is actually a non-countable noun. “Percent,” the root word is a mathematical notation that is added to a number to give it meaning (5 percent, a 20 percent increase, etc…). And “percentage,” as the noun form of a mathematical notation, is an abstract concept. Like other nouns that are abstract concepts (“fear,” “perception,” “history,” etc…), “percentage” is treated as non-countable for the most part. The only time you would treat “percentage” as countable is if there were multiple numbers involved, such as: “We measured the percentage of change, the percentage in India, the percentage in America, and numerous other percentages.” Otherwise, a phrase such “a lower percentage,” which uses “lower” to focus on the level of a number related to the percentage, really is the better option, because it doesn’t try to apply an adjective for countable nouns to non-countable “percentage.”