Imagine there existed a word that had two definitions, and these two definitions were the opposite of each other. Hot could mean either hot or cold. A tall person could be either a giant or a midget. Sounds like something out of Lewis Carrol’s Alice in Wonderland. Yet such words exist in the English language. They are called Janus words, and the employs these vocabulary words frequently.
Perhaps the most common Janus word on the GRE is sanction. Sanction can mean to allow/encourage or to penalize/punish. Confusing? Let’s take a look:
The committee sanctioned the CEO’s actions.
As it stands, we cannot be sure how sanction is being used here. Is the committee happy or upset with the CEO’s actions? The good news is the GRE will mostly avoid this ambiguity.
The committee sanctioned the CEO’s actions, suspending him for two weeks.
The GRE is not going to make it that straightforward and may even retain some of the ambiguity as in the sentence-completion below.
Celebrities inhabit a rarefied realm, whereby we — actions that would otherwise be considered —- were our cohorts to behave the same way.
Because answer choices (A), (B), (D), and (E) do not work, we know that answer choice (C) has to be using sanction to mean approve. More specifically, the first blank has to be a synonym for approve and the second blank has to be a negative word.
Look for more Janus words coming soon!