To begin, a few new GMAT Sentence Correction practice questions.
1) After a dip caused by Congressional embroilment, many growth stocks are beginning to resume their previous levels, but some, hampered by a general stagnancy in the economy, is returning with a speed that is less than they would expect.
A. is returning with a speed that is less than they would expect
B. is returning with a slower speed than expected
C. are returning more slowly than expected
D. are returning more slowly than they would expect
E. are returning with a speed less than expected
2) All of the university’s faculty is appalled by the decision to hire as university president the senator censured for influence peddling, but some are willing to extend for him a civil welcome.
A. are willing to extend for
B. is willing to extend to
C. are willing to extend to
D. is willing for extending to
E. are willing for extending for
3) The genetic code of hominids accounts not only for all current human diversity but also the differences between modern humans as opposed to earlier hominids, and yet most are identical to the genetic code of chimpanzees.
A. the differences between modern humans as opposed to earlier hominids, and yet most are
B. the differences between modern humans and earlier hominids, and yet most is
C. for the differences of modern humans from earlier hominids, and yet most is
D. for the differences of modern humans from earlier hominids, and yet most are
E. for the differences between modern humans and earlier hominids, and yet most is
Explanations will come at the end of this article.
Indefinite pronouns and modifiers
Here’s a list of the indefinite pronouns in English: some, someone, somebody, something; any, anyone, anybody, anything; either; none, no one, nobody, nothing; neither; each; both; all; everyone, everybody, everything. Here’s a list of the indefinite modifiers: some; any; either; no; neither; all; both; each; every. The GMAT likes probing a few tricky issues regarding these words.
Indefinite Pronouns and Subject-Verb Agreement
The modifiers will be modifying a noun, so you can always look at that noun to determine singular or plural. Things get a little trickier with the indefinite pronouns: many are always singular, only one is always plural, and the rest depend on context.
Any of the indefinite that end in –body, –thing, or –one (including “no one“)are always singular. The others that are always singular are: either, neither, each. As a pronoun, the word both is always plural. For those, subject-verb agreement is very straightforward. “Each is …” “Both are ….”
What about the others? These others, the pronouns some, any, none, and all, are very tricky. Think of it this way. Each of these will have, explicitly or implicitly, and “of ____” modifier, and if the word following “of” is singular or plural, then these four adjectives take on the number (singular or plural) of that noun. If the “of” statement follows the adjective explicitly, then it’s relatively easy:
“Some of the people are …”
“Some of the money is ….”
“All of the time has ….”
“All of the birds have …”
Things are not so obvious in a sentence in which the qualifying “of” preposition is implied by something, usually another “of” prepositional phrase, somewhere earlier in the sentence.
Some of the X blah blah blah, but none is/are ….
It’s not unusual to have one indefinite pronoun in the first half of the sentence with a qualifying “of” prepositional phrase, and then a second indefinite pronoun in the second half, implicitly referring to the same qualifying prepositional phrase. We have to look for the indefinite in the first half, and identify the appropriate object of the “of” preposition: that noun will determine whether the indefinite in the second half of the sentence is singular or plural.
Some of the cars blah blah blah, but none are …..
Some of the gasoline blah blah blah, but none is ….
More on S-V agreement
One way to frame the above information is with the countable/uncountable distinction. As a general rule, if the pronoun some, any, none, or all is followed by an uncountable noun, it is singular, but if it is followed by a countable noun, it is plural.
This raises the issue of the comparative words associated with quantity: more, less, fewer, most, little. The words less and little are used only with uncountable nouns, so as pronouns, they will always be singular. The word fewer is used only with countable nouns, so as a pronouns, it will always be plural
Blah blah blah, but less is ….
Blah blah blah, but little is ….
Blah blah blah, but fewer are …
The words more and most share the same ambiguity that our quartet of indefinite pronouns here have. Both words, more and most, can refer either to countable or uncountable nouns, and we have to classify the noun in order to determine whether these words are singular or plural.
All people blah blah blah, but most are not ….
All of the ocean blah blah blah, but most is not ….
Some mammals blah blah blah, but most have ….
Some of the forest blah blah blah, but most has ….
Caveat #1: These are the general rules. In certain special cases, unlikely to appear on the GMAT, for the words “none” or “any” followed by “of” [countable nouns], the logic of the sentence will demand a singular construction.
Any of the three candidate interviewed is a good fit for this position.
Again, you are unlikely to see cases such as this on the GMAT. Just remember, the rules of grammar are not mathematical: they have their exceptions.
Caveat #2: As with all S-V Agreement, beware of collective nouns. A collective noun (a company, a team, a group of any sort) consists of several individuals, but the collective noun itself is singular. It takes a singular verb and a singular pronoun. For the purposes of the fore-going conversation, a collective noun acts as an uncountable noun when combined with an indefinite pronoun — therefore, the indefinite pronouns some, any, none, or all would be singular.
Some of the company is …
Any of the church is ….
None of the union is ….
All of the electorate is …
Caveat #3: This is a particularly subtle point about the word “none.” The word “none” etymologically derives from “no one,” which obviously is singular, so sometimes the word “none” is construed as singular even when it followed by “of the [plural noun].” So, a singular verb could be correct. It depends very much on the logic of the statement.
In the sentence “None of the cars have finished the race,” we use the plural verb. This is essentially a group statement. All of the cars are participating in a group action, the race, and we are making a statement that is true about the group. The plural verb makes sense here.
In the sentence, “None of the candidates has been able to propose a valid solution to the economic crisis,” we are using the word “none” in usage closer to its etymological sense of “no one” or “not one.” Notice that this is definitely not a group action. Each candidate individual has tried to propose something valid, and each one has individually failed to do so. Because each action is individual and unique, it justifies the use of the singular verb.
The GMAT is quite unlikely to test you on this subtle distinction, although this issue at times appears in the non-underlined parts of SC questions (Cf. OG2016, SC #26).
Obviously, this topic is rife with opportunities for errors. Pay attention whenever you see this particular words: predictable GMAT snares will be lying in wait. If you had an “aha!” while reading this article, take another look at the practice question above before reading the solution. If you would like to express anything, or would like to ask a question, please let us know in the comment section at the bottom.
Explanations for practice questions
1) Split #1: SV Agreement. The pronoun “some” is the subject of the second half of the sentence. What is the implicit phrase: some of what? By “some”, this sentence means “some growth stocks”. Growth stocks are countable, and some of them would be plural, so we need the plural verb “are”. Choices (A) & (B) are incorrect.
Split #2: Mystery pronoun. A couple choices provided a subject to the verb “expected”: unfortunately, this is the pronoun “they” with no antecedent. The mysterious “they” who we expecting something are not identified. On the GMAT, this is unacceptable. Choices (A) & (D) make this mistake.
Split #3: speed. If P is moving faster than Q, how do we describe Q? It is unnecessarily wordy to say Q moves “with a speed less than” P, or, even worse, Q moves “with a speed that is less than” P. Those are the poor choices of (E) & (A) respectively. Choice (B) has “with a slower speed than” —- arguably, “slower speed” verges on the redundant. The most direct way to say this is: Q moves “more slowly than” P.
For all these reasons, (C) is perfectly correct and it is the only possible answer.
2) Split #1: SV Agreement. The subject of the second clause, “some”, refers back to the “the university’s faculty”. This is a collective noun. While there are many faculty members, the faculty is singular, and “all of the faculty” or “some of the faculty” must be singular as well. Notice the singular verb in the first half of the sentence. The second must be singular as well. Choices (A) & (C) & (E) are incorrect.
Split #2a: idiom with “willing”. The adjective “willing” take an infinitive: willing to do X. The structure “willing for doing X” is never correct. Choices (D) & (E) make this mistake.
Split #2b: idiom with “extend”. When we give someone a welcome, we say that we extend the welcome to him. Use of “for” in this context is never correct. Choices (A) & (E) make this mistake.
For all these reasons, (B) is the only possible answer.
3) Split #1: the once outside or twice inside construction. It would be correct to say “for not only P but also Q”, or to say “not only for P but also for Q.” The “for” comes after “not only” in the non-underlined part of the sentence, so this means we must choose the “twice inside” structure. Another “for” must follow the words “but also”. Choice (A) & (B) are incorrect.
Split #2: the idiom with “difference.” The correct idiom is “difference between P and Q“. Both “difference of P from Q” and “difference between P as opposed to Q” are abominably incorrect. Choice (A) & (C) & (D) are incorrect.
Split #3: SV Agreement. The subject of the second clause is the word “most” — most what? Most of “the genetic code of hominids“, which is singular. We need the singular verb “is“. Choice (A) & (D) are incorrect.
For all these reasons, (E) is the only possible answer.